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(Last Updated On: 1st April 2023)

Abstract: The study investigated the influence of citizen journalism on the practice of journalism in Osun state. The study was anchored on Technology Determinism Theory. A survey research method was employed while questionnaire was used as data collection instrument to elicit responses from respondents who re journalists in Osun State. The data collected were analysis using frequency and percentage with the aids of tables. The findings of the study were that citizen journalism offer access to multiple sources. Equally, majority of the respondents (52%) pointed out that increase in fake news has influenced the practice of journalism than any other thing. Also, many of the respondents (60%) claimed that the major challenge posed by the citizen journalism is that they competing for the same audience and advertisements. Similarly, majority of the respondents (48%) noted that citizen journalism is doing more harm than good to journalism to a very high extent. It was recommended that member of the public should possess media literacy skill to be able to think critically about the information they consume while journalists should employ Fact-Checking Network.

Keywords: Citizen Journalism


Title Page




Table of Contents



1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of Problem

1.3      Objective of the study

1.4       Research questions

1.5       Significance of the Study

1.6       Scope of the study

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms



2.1.1    Concept of Citizen Journalism

2.1.3    The Status of Citizen Journalism in Nigeria

2.1.3    Journalism Practice

2.1.4    Rise of Violence caused by Fake news

2.1.5    Social Media and Citizen Journalism

2.1.6    Facebook and Citizen Journalism

2.1.7  The Rate of the Spread of Fake News among Nigerians on both Social and Conventional


2.1.8    Factors that Influence Citizen Journalism



3.3.1    Technology Determinism Theory


3.0       Introduction

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Research Method

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample Size

3.5       Sampling Technique

3.6       Data Collection Instrument

3.7       Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument

3.8       Method of Data Collection

3.9       Method Data Analysis


4.1       Data Analysis

4.2       Discussion of Findings


5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendations





1.1     Background to the Study

            Journalism in Nigeria has come a long way, from the colonial era where newspapers were used as tools of resistance to the military era where it served as a platform for expressing dissenting opinions. With the advent of technology and the internet, journalism in Nigeria has experienced a transformation, with the emergence of citizen journalism, which has greatly influenced the practice of journalism in the country (Adesanya, 2017).

            Citizen journalism in Nigeria has gained momentum with the widespread use of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It has given ordinary citizens a voice and a platform to share their opinions, views, and experiences with the world. The Nigerian media landscape has witnessed several instances of citizen journalists breaking news stories and sharing firsthand accounts of events (Akinfeleye, 2015).

            However, the emergence of citizen journalism has had a significant impact on the practice of journalism in Nigeria. It has challenged the traditional role of professional journalists as the gatekeepers of news and information. Citizen journalists have now become the primary sources of news and information for many Nigerians, especially in situations where mainstream media are censored or face restrictions (Akinfeleye, 2015).

            Similarly, citizen journalism has encouraged traditional media to be more accountable, transparent, and objective in their reporting. Professional journalists are now more conscious of their role in society and are increasingly making efforts to provide accurate, unbiased, and impartial news coverage (Mbachu, 2018).

            Equally, citizen journalism has provided an avenue for the promotion of citizen participation in governance. It has empowered citizens to hold their elected officials accountable and demand for better governance. In a country like Nigeria where corruption is rife, citizen journalism has been instrumental in exposing corrupt practices and bringing the perpetrators to justice (Mbachu, 2018)

            This does not exist without some challenges, and despite the benefits of citizen journalism, there are challenges and limitations that need to be addressed. One of the major challenges is the issue of credibility. With the ease of creating and sharing content on social media platforms, it is often difficult to verify the authenticity and accuracy of news and information shared by citizen journalists (Oyero, 2019).

            Oyero (2019) stressed that the issue of safety and security. Citizen journalists are often exposed to physical harm and intimidation from those who do not want their stories to be told. The Nigerian government has also been known to clamp down on citizen journalism by using draconian laws to restrict freedom of expression and the press.

            By and large, citizen journalism has had a profound influence on the practice of journalism in Nigeria. It has challenged traditional media practices and has provided a platform for citizens to express themselves and demand for accountability from their leaders. However, there is a need for better regulation, verification, and training of citizen journalists to ensure that the credibility and integrity of news and information are maintained.

            Meanwhile, the verification of information or news shared via social media and blogs platforms has been neglected hence an increase in false information has grown drastically via this medium of communication and interaction, as a result, fake news has become an alarming issue in our day and age. Fake news is simply the deliberate misrepresentation of information or the complete falsification of information spread to the public. “Fake News has reached an epidemic proportion and social media. It is against this backdrop that the study investigates the influence of citizen journalism on the practice of journalism in Nigeria particularly in Osun State.

1.2      Statement of Problem                         

            The study will investigate the influence of citizen journalism as regards to the practice of journalism in Nigeria particularly in Osun State, it is pertinent to note that, most private individuals who are citizens journalists, did not go through the basic levels of attaining a degree in journalism, that is, core journalistic skills, including researching, investigating, interviewing, reporting and writing, which a professional journalism should undergo, in disseminating news.

            Due to look of professionalism which most citizens journalist, do not attain, has led to rise of fake news, in disseminating information through social media platforms, as they fail to consider the ethics of the profession in journalism the sense of social responsibility and there strait that trained journalists normally exhibit. Therefore, citizen journalists are not trained to subscribe to the traditional journalistic standards of objectivity, fairness, and accuracy found in disseminating news this has led to the high rate of fake news in citizen journalism.

            Most importantly, due to the widespread of internet globally and the rate of unemployment in Nigeria, most individuals who are citizens journalists, at comfortable of their home, disseminate news and information, which could be true/false, but are mostly “fake news” without undergoing any training in the professionalism of journalism. It is against this backdrop that the study investigates the influence of citizen journalism on the practice of journalism in Nigeria with a focus on Osun state.

1.3     Objectives of the study

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of citizen journalism on the practice of journalism. The specific objectives include:

  1. To examine the extent at which citizen journalism influenced the practice of journalism in Osun state.
  2. To determine how citizen journalism influence the practice of journalism in Osun state.

1.4     Research questions

In order to explicate the aforementioned objectives, the listed questions provide answers to the research problem:

  1. To what extent has citizen journalism influence the practice of journalism in Osun state?
  2. How has citizen journalism influence the practice of journalism in Osun state?

1.5     Significance of the Study

  1. This study will be of benefits and interest not only to journalists in Nigeria, but it will be valuable to other service sectors in Nigeria as a whole. The study will be of great benefit to the researchers, journalists and the entire Nigeria to embrace the law in order to encourage professionalism and the ethnical of journalism.
  2. The outcome of this study will alert government, civil society organisations (CSOs) and all other pro-democratic groups on the need to enact strategies and mechanism for combating fake news in order to ensure quality journalism and a responsible expression by all.
  3. Academically, this research will therefore advance knowledge. The academic community will use this work as a reference point and in the execution of similar studies. Again, journalists, editors, specialized groups, society, government etc. stand to gain immensely from the study. For the journalists, it provides them an ample opportunity to press for national development and enthronement of transparency in government. The government, through this study could harness the latent potency of the law as educated in it towards providing quality service to its citizens. In the same vein, the study is significant as it provide a platform for government press collaboration which if harnessed, can facilitate national development.
  4. The result of the study will also provide a framework for media practitioners that will enable them exercise a good information sharing behaviour basically for the fact that the success of every democracy rest on the media. It will also provide an insight for them to understand the effect of fake news on the democracy of the country. Furthermore, the outcome of the study will make available ready materials for policymakers towards censoring falsehood in both new and conventional media industry so that citizens can express their opinions responsibly for the greater good of democracy.
  5. By so doing, this research contributes significantly to the pool of theoretical and empirical literature in this area of knowledge. They will equally serve as a reference point to researchers who want to embark on similar study.

1.6     Scope of the study

            The study which investigates the influence of citizen journalism on the practice of journalism has been narrowed in scope to journalists in Osun State. Therefore, the geographical scope of this study was within Osun state. The choice of journalists in Osun State is due to its proximity to the researcher, inadequate time among other logistics.

The Nigeria Union of Journalists centre beside Technical College will be selected because of its proximity to the researcher as it will be difficult if not impossible to study all journalists in Nigeria. Other important factor to select NUJ Press Centre beside Technical College, Osogbo is to be able to see as many journalists as possible because the centre is home to many.

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms

Citizen journalism: This study, citizen journalism, also known as participatory journalism or grassroots journalism, refers to the practice of ordinary individuals or non-professional journalists collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information. This can be done through various channels, such as social media platforms, blogs, podcasts, and online forums.

Journalism: In this research, journalism is the practice of gathering, analyzing, and disseminating news and information to the public through various media, such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and the internet usually by professional journalist.

Practice of Journalism: For purposes of this research the practice of journalism refer to the legal and ethical means that guide the operation of journalists and media houses.



Format = MS Word, Price = ₦4000, Chapter = 1-5, Pages = 52, References = Yes, Questionnaire =Yes, Table of Contents = Yes and Abstract = Yes


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