Abstract: The research was on the thrust to examine the influence of Nollywood celebrities’ mode of dressing on the fashion trends among undergraduates. The primary motive of carrying out this research was to know the extent at which Nollywood movies actors and actresses have influenced the dressing pattern of youth particularly students of tertiary institutions. The theories that led support for this study were Social Learning Theory and Cultivation Theory. A survey research method was adopted coupled with questionnaire to collect data from respondents, however, respondents were picked using accidental sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed in frequency and percentage method. It is of note that the imitation of Nollywood pattern of dress has led to indecent dressing and decline in Nigeria cultural values and norms. It was recommended that the Nigerian Films and Movies Censor Board should ensure proper scrutiny of films before is released for viewing.
1.1 Background to the Study
Nigeria is a country where culture and religion dictate the perception or stance of the people on social behaviour. In fact, it is against many if not all Nigeria culture to appear nude especially among the Muslim, Hausa, Yoruba even the Igbo nation kick against indecent dressing otherwise called semi-porn. Nnabuko (2012) quoted Olu and Iduaja (2007) observes that, with the mass production of visual images through television, cinema, film, internet, etc the world has eventually become a global village sharing different world views in common.
There is a common belief in Nigeria, that home movies (Nollywood) negatively project the culture of Nigeria. That is why Frank Aig-Imoukahude in Opubor (1995) cited in Nnabuko (2012) confirms that, “Many Nigerians have complained of the poisonous content of films shown on the screens in Nigeria. A great number of people have criticized the nation’s television for featuring materials which have contradiction or erode, the quality of life and undermine the people’s values and norms. What is needed are films for self projection for presenting the fact of life in Nigeria.
Over the years, Nigerian movies and musical videos (Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba and English) have been a means of propagating and projecting our cultural norms and values to the outside world. Those were the days when our film and musical industry act as a measure of a role model to the larger society (Agnes, 2016).
The Youth Awake Movement of Nigeria (2013) posits that both the actors, actresses and musicians preaches to the people about the best way to live their lives in the society including quality dressing that match the norms. Then, our film and musical video producers, directors and actors are epitomes of African heritage, showcasing us positively to the entire world. These roles they played in the society makes them more relevant to the people even than our leaders. People used to copy most of their lifestyles exhibited in many of their roles and characters in their movies.
Oyero, Amodu and Usaini, (2015) write that exemplary and distinct role they played in the society earns them many respects and awards both at home and abroad. Many of these films and musical videos in the past have helped to restore many broken homes and marriages, helped to redefine the values in the society positively, even as a template in leadership style. Many of these films and musical videos used to preach against unhealthy practices like ritual killings for money, use of human being for sacrifice, gender inequalities, wicked acts and many more societal vices. Some of these film makers who have made the industry what it is today include Hebert Ogunde, Papa Ogungbe, Baba Sala, Iya Rainbow, Mama Awero, Oga Bello, Jide Kosoko, Pa Ade Love, Baba Ayo Feyikogbon, Jinadu, Ajileye, Orisabunmi, Ogogo, Yinka Quadri, Shola Shobowale and many more in the Yoruba film industry. Also, in the English and Igbo sector includes Saint Obi, Olu Jacobs, Pete Edochie, Osadebe, Oliver de Koko Ramson Noah, Bimbo Akintola, Liz Benson, Joke Da Silver, Sam Loko Efe, Enebeli Elebuwa, Justus Esiri and many more.
The Youth Awake Movement of Nigeria (2013) writes that in the past few years, Nollywood and our musical industry has gradually become the shadow of it formal self as in the role it used to play in sanitizing our society. It has gone from being a role model in the society to being a bad influence on the young generation. These acts can be seen in many movies and musical videos produced in recent time as many of them lack the required quality needed by the society as most of the videos are semi-porn. This days, good parents who wish to train their children in the right way and way of God are now selective in the choice of films and musical videos they buy and watch at home. The rate of indecent and nude dressing in our movies and musical videos these days call for a greater concern from everyone. The influx of Nigeria market with indecent and unholy movies especially soft porn and crime movies makes the industry a non go area for a good and well brought up child especially female.
It was well know that Ghanaian movies were known for producing soft porn movies but Nigerians have also join this league in no time. The recent release of movies like The Benjamins, Greedy sex, Room 027, Bold 5 babes, My pretty angel, All my ladies and many more bring to mind the question of where is Nollywood going in term of moral decay? It of believe that a worthy parents will never allow movies like those mention above to be watched in their home with their children. The rate of indecent dressing and sexual display on the screen by our so-called celebrities and movies stars make one to constantly ask where the future of the industry in heading? Also, the release of many gay movies like Law 58, Lesbian, Sinful Acts and many more also contributed more to the encouragement of same sex relationship among our younger generations in the society. Another fashion promoted through movies is makeup/hairstyles projected by home movies than any other form of dressing and the major reasons for that are for fashion and imitating a role model as the study postulates such act makes them look indecent on campus.
Also, the display of ladies nudity on many musical videos is now far alarming than what one would have imagined. Can this be due to exposure and civilization? It is against this backdrop that the research examines the influence of Nollywood influence has brain washed and eroded the cultural values of Nigeria with the view to know the extent of exposure of students and extent of influence it has.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nollywood movies are important tools of mass communication which cuts across national and cultural boundaries with wide and fast distribution network internationally. The movies are seen as a source of entertainment, education as well as conduit for promoting Nigerian culture. Thus, cultural transmission is a major role of Nollywood movies, going through movies it reveals that some of the movies portray costumes that reflect the rich Nigerian culture, this manifest in her traditional mode of dressing. Media and researchers have noted that dressing is a manifest reflection of people’s culture which includes mode of dressing.
Nigerian Nollywood movies have been accused of portrayal of foreign pattern of social life, in terms of dress, sex scenes, nudity, obscenity, vulgar language, curses, indecent dresses, rape, beating up women, smoking, molestation and harassment. These styles are self-injurious in nature, and likely to affect the youths etc. Also, the failure by movie producers to make any strong comment against social ills is a short coming of the films that shown illicit sex scenes in the films.
Although, lots of studies have been conducted on the role of film in society, influence of violence movies on aggressive behaviour and more but little or no research has been conducted on how movies influence dressing pattern even where it exist, they were conducted in the foreign land which cannot be replicated in Nigeria or focus on nollywood.
Similarly, lack of policy and laws to guard the youths towards Nollywood influence has brain washed and eroded the cultural values of Nigeria. It is pertinent to know the kind of influence of Nollywood celebrities mode of dressing on University of Lagos undergraduates be it positive or negative. In face foreign media overshadowing of Nigeria’s cultural value and manifest, it becomes important to examine to what extent does Nollywood celebrities mode dressing influence the fashion trends of University of Lagos undergraduates.
1.3 Objectives of the study.
The objectives of the research is to examine the following:
- To find out the level of exposure of University of Lagos undergraduates to Nollywood movies.
- To examine the extent to which Nollywood celebrities mode of dressing influences fashion trend among University of Lagos undergraduates.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent are University of Lagos undergraduates exposed to Nollywood movies?
- To what extent is fashion trend among University of Lagos undergraduates influenced by Nollywood celebrities mode of dressing.
1.5 Significance of the study
A study of this nature is important to all segments of the society. The study will examine the extent which fashion trend amongst University of Lagos influenced by Nollywood celebrities mode of dressing. This will in turn make Nollywood celebrities develop positive disposition to their mode of dressing in a bid to improve on them.
It will guide policy makers and regulatory agencies in providing protection against the exposure of movies that promote indecent dressing which negates Nigeria’s cultural values in the society. It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movement of Western cultures into Nigeria film sector.
The study will be beneficial to undergraduates of universities in Nigeria in that it will serve as a source of updated information on the influence that could be exerted through the media. It will help providing solution to lapses in nollywood industry especially in the aspect of promoting and preserving Nigeria cultural heritage and social norms.
The study will also serve to further substantiate other studies that may have be carried out on influence of Nollywood celebrities mode of dressing on fashion trends among undergraduates in Nigeria.
Researchers who may want to further their study in any related aspect of this research will find the research helpful as it forms bulk materials on the film industry, media and other academic.
1.6 Scope of study
It is expected that a single study cannot explore all angles to a subject matter, given limited time and space. The study is restricted to the influence of Nollywood celebrity’s mode of dressing on fashion trends among selected students. To this end, the study was limited to a few selected students from departments of Mass Communication and Economics of Faculty of Social Science, departments of Creative Art and English Language of Faculty of Art University of Lagos due to inadequate fund, proximity and other logistics.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Influence: The ability of Nollywood to affect or alter the moral behavior of students of University of Lagos especially on their dressing and fashion pattern.
Nollywood: The Nigeria n video film industry is known as Nollywood movies in this context which means the video films packaged by the Nigerian Home Video Industry for home viewing or is the name attributed to Nigeria’s movie industry. They are usually in the video cassette format or the video compact disc format.
Nollywood Celebrities: These are actors and actresses that are participating in movies in Nigeria that are usually very popular and have lots of fans and followers.
Mode of Dressing: It refers to the manner of dressing including the hairstyle, makeover among Unilag students.
Fashion Trends: There are various trending pattern of dress, makeover and other emerging ways of life among students often influenced by the nollywood.