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Assessment of Consumers Believability of TV Advertisement Claims

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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine consumers believability of TV adverts claims with a particular focus on Dettol Commercials among residents of Port Harcourt. Television commercials are indeed an important tool for organization to communicate, introduce and promote product such as Dettol. The study was anchored on Social Judgement Theory. A survey research method was employed, questionnaire was administered to the respondents to elicit responses from them. Respondents were selected using a quota sampling method having drawn the respondents using Taro Yamane formula. The data were analyzed in frequency and percentage method and the data were presented using tables. Findings show that all respondents (100%) have one time or the other exposed to Dettol Adverts either via mass media, billboard, apps or social media among others with substantial numbers of them agreed that they understand Dettol advertisements. Also, majority of the respondents (66.7%) still believe and trust Dettol brand because of the health specialists used to convey the messages whereas 15.6% of the respondents like it because of the celebrity used. Thus, many of the respondents submitted that they get maximum satisfaction after product trial and as a result they stick to the brand due to the fact that they have exposed to Dettol commercials several times. It was recommended that the body saddled with the responsibility of regulating what goes on air in the Nigeria mass media should police media and advertisers that promote whistle words and other tactics to decisive audience.


Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi

Abstract                                                                                                                      vii


1.1       Background to the Study________________________________________1

1.2       Statement of the Problem _______________________________________3

1.3       Objectives of the Study_________________________________________4

1.4       Research Questions____________________________________________4

1.5       Significance of the Study________________________________________5

1.6       Scope of the Study____________________________________________6

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms _________________________________6



2.0       Introduction_________________________________________________8

2.1       Conceptual Review___________________________________________20

2.2       Empirical Studies____________________________________________25           

2.3       Theoretical Framework_______________________________________25



3.0       Introduction________________________________________________33

3.1       Research Design____________________________________________33

3.2       Research Method___________________________________________33

3.3       Study Population_____________________________________________34

3.4       Sample Size ________________________________________________34

3.5       Sampling Technique _________________________________________34

3.6       Instrument for Data Collection__________________________________35

3.7       Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­_____________________35

3.8       Data Collection Process________________________________________36

3.9       Method of Data Analysis_______________________________________36



            Introduction _________________________________________________39

4.1       Data Analysis ________________________________________________39

4.2       Discussion of Findings_________________________________________48



5.1       Summary__________________________________________________50

5.2.      Conclusions ________________________________________________51

5.3       Recommendations ___________________________________________52


            Appendix (re-number the pages)




1.1       Background to the Study

            One of the most important factors in the growth, expansion, and development of the industrial sector, and eventually in the growth of the economy, is advertising. In the 21st century, customers cannot avoid the media or marketing campaigns. Researchers have examined and will continue to examine how advertisements affect people’s attitudes, emotions, lifestyle decisions, and the consumption of goods and services, as well as their consequences on these factors (Olayinka, 2022) cited in (Rudani, 2010).

            The core of a business is to grow, expand, and survive over the long term, and advertising is one of the strategies and tactics to stay afloat. As a result, advertising has become a powerful marketing instrument in modern economics and is crucial to the development of a firm (Olayinka, 2022) cited in (Sew and Smith, 2010).

            So, advertising is a persuading non-personal communication about goods, services, or ideas that is frequently funded by known sponsors through various mass media. Today, advertisements are everywhere. They can be seen on the bus, while we’re walking down the street, on the highways, while we’re driving, in the newspapers, on radio, and television. They can also be seen in the SMS messages we receive on our mobile phones, in the email advertisements and marketing we receive in our inbox, and especially when we’re using the Internet, including those to which we are exposing when utilizing certain apps or engaging in certain games (Carthy 2015).

            Hence, advertising has long been recognized as a powerful tool for enticing and persuading customers to buy a variety of goods and services. Customers of some products have been more brand loyal since commercials first appeared. Due to the promises stated in the advertisements, these commercials could either positively or negatively affect their target audience’s decision to acquire the goods and services. The fact that there will always be skepticism regarding advertisements’ claims about the veracity of the products and services they advertise is not a new development. Accordingly, an advertisement’s claim is either truthful or untrue.

            The believability of claims made in TV commercials can vary greatly. Some advertisements are based on extensive research and real-life testimonials, while others make exaggerated or misleading claims. It’s important for consumers to be informed and critically evaluate the information presented in commercials (Maloney, 2013). Advertising through all mediums influence audiences, but television is one of the strongest media of advertising, and due to its mass reach, it can influence not only the individual’s attitude, behaviour, life style, and exposure, but also the culture of the country (Latif and Abideen, 2011).

            Ayanwale, Alimi and Ayanbimpe (2005) assert that the relevance of advertising as a promotional strategy depends on its ability to influence consumers not only to purchase, but to continue to purchase and eventually develop brand loyalty. Television advertising is ideal when the advertiser intends to demonstrate the product or service; it offers great flexibility in the fact that one can combine the interaction of sight, sound and motion. These effects can be used to catch the attention of audience members and then reinforce their retention rates by repeating the message using both audio and video. Baran (2004) adds that television commercials, by virtue of the fact that consumers could see and hear products in action, are different from advertisements in other media. Thus, the ability to demonstrate the product to do the future test leads to the unique selling proposition (USP) of television advertising.

            In as much as TV adverts are said to be the most appealing because they are audio- visual, they also tend to be the most deceptive as well. As a matter of fact, the major aim of TV advertising is to bring goods to the attention of consumers. However, in a bid to achieve this, advertisers use different claims which are either true or false in their TV adverts.   Deceptive and truthful advertising has generated a lot of debate and concern among scholars and consumer right groups. There have been arguments that organizations should make sufficient information available to the consumers to help in making decisions on what they really want. The Nigerian government has also made attempts to curb what it considers as deceptive advertising through the establishment of the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) and Nigeria Broadcasting Commission (NBC).

            According to APCON Code, Act no 55 of 1988, Article 2 and Article 3 respectively states that, “Advertisements shall not use visual illustrations or words or sounds that offend public decency. Advertisement shall not be obscene or offensive”. “All advertisements shall be so framed as not to abuse the trust of consumers or exploit their lack of experience or knowledge. Relevant factors likely to affect consumers’ decisions shall be communicated in such a way and at such time that consumers can take them into account”. According to NBC Code, Section 7.0.1, all broadcast advertisements shall be legal, decent, honest and truthful. It is against this backdrop that the research investigated the consumer believability of TV commercial claims with a particular focus on Port-Harcourt consumers.

 1.2       Statement of the Problem

            There is no comprehensive knowledge as to whether or not the advertisers of the brand, Dettol, are actually very sincere about the product when they release new TV adverts for it. There is also no proof as to whether consumers of this brand actually believe that their adverts are actually true in relation to the product or false.

            Therefore, this research investigates the extent to which consumers of Dettol believe the claims made by the brand’s advertisers and ascertain whether the advertisers of this brand are truly being honest to its consumers through its TV commercials.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

            The general objective of this study is to investigate the consumer believability of TV commercial claims while the specific objectives are:

  1. To check if consumers believe claims without trying the products first.
  2. To find out the factors that lead to consumer belief of product before trials.
  3. To determine whether or not users believe claims that is not easily verified.

1.4       Research Questions

In order to explicate the aforementioned objectives, the listed questions provide answers to the research problem:

  1. To what extent do consumers believe claims without trying?
  2. What factors lead to such belief without product trial?
  3. To what extent do consumers try the product?

1.5       Scope of the Study

            The study which investigated the Port-Harcourt consumer believability of TV commercial claims has been narrowed in scope to Dettol adverts among Port-Harcourt consumers. Thus, the geographical scope of this study was within Rivers State (Port-Harcourt). The choice of residents of Port-Harcourt is due to its proximity to the researcher, inadequate time to study all Dettol Consumers across the country among other logistics. Equally, the brand adverts are usually exposed to by Port-Harcourt consumers.

1.6       Significance of the Study

          The results of this study will make a substantial contribution to the body of knowledge already available in the fields of advertising and marketing in general. Through this study’s findings, the advertisers will specifically recognize and comprehend the genuine effects of various techniques, particularly those claims while advertising brands, particularly in this era of competing brands.

            Advertising agencies may also gain from this research because it will reveal the media (such as radio, television, billboards, digital signage, and other new media platforms) appropriate for a specific campaign to aid recall and reinforce claim as well as what consumers want and how they want, allowing advertising agencies to create appealing materials to support consumer recall processing and, consequently, patronage without necessarily be falsefully.

         The Federal Competition and Consumer Protection Commission (FCCPC), the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON), and other stakeholders tasked with ensuring fairness in advertisements and consumption may also profit from the findings of this study as it may serve as an eye-opener by observing the types of celebrities, models, lyrics, and other alluring strategies combined without been deviceful.

          Dettol as a brand is very popular globally. Because of its popularity and acceptance, consumers are easily deceived by the claims made by its advertisers. Therefore, the overall motivation for conducting this study is to contribute to research on consumer believability of advertisers’ claims about Dettol as a brand.

          This study may be relevant to researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, mass communication, and other related fields who are interested in conducting studies that are similar to or related to this because it provides them with an empirical opportunity to see what has been done while also serving as a source of literature.

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms

Television Commercials: In this study, a structured and composed message on products paid for on television with the aim of marketing Dettol.

Consumers: In this research, these are people who buy and use Dettol antiseptic in Port-Harcourt.

Claims: In this study, claims are statements of what the product can do about a product by its advertisers in its television commercials.

Believability: In this study, the acceptance of a claim as being true or false in Dettol advertisement.

“Assessment of Consumers Believability of TV Adverts Claims


Format = MS Word, Price = ₦4000, Chapter = 1-5, Pages = 52, References = Yes, Questionnaire =Yes, Table of Contents = Yes and Abstract = Yes



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