HISTORY OF THE NIGERIAN MASS MEDIA

            What is today’s known as mass media in Nigeria came chronologically i.e from one stage to the other, from one technological advancement to the other, from one regime or government or the other. There is no doubt about the fact that print media pioneers and ushers the emergence of mass media in Nigeria. However, despite the disagreements among earlier scholars, researchers and media experts on how and when the press began in Nigeria, yet most of the scholars and experts agreed that Nigerian’s first newspaper was Iwe-Iroyin fun Awon Egba (the Newspaper for the Egba People) floated by Reverend …READ MORE …

Summary of Paulo Freire PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED

The Paper Titled “Pedagogy of the Oppressed” was authored by Paulo Freire and published by Citizens International, Malaysia.             The paper focused on how the advanced or big nations are oppressing the less developed (underdeveloped) mostly in Africa and part of the Asia. This paper is more or less recapturing what happened in the slave trade, colonial era, independence, post-independence and neo-colonialism which are also related to what we are currently experienced under the globalization.             The paper looked critically on how most formal colonies are still struggling to be independent and free from various degree of oppressions, victimizations and …READ MORE …

COMMUNICATION THEORY-ACTION ASSEMBLY THEORY

AN OVERVIEW OF ACTION ASSEMBLY THEORY Action Assembly Theory (AAT) was developed by John Greene in 1984, and the first generation of his theory published in a Communication Monographs article was entitled, “A cognitive approach to human communication: An Action Assembly Theory”. A second generation of Greene’s theory (1997) was published in the book “Message production: Advances in communication theory”. It is a post-positivism theory. Greene (2007) noted in Explaining Communication that cognitive theories in general focus on representation and processing (p. 168). Representation refers to information which is stored in the mind, and how this information is coded and …READ MORE …

TEN (10) SCHOLARLY DEFINITIONS OF THEORY WITH RELEVANT CITATIONS

Introduction Theories and Models are concepts without a universal definition or meaning, rather scholars, experts and researchers have tried to define and explain theory based on their perception, background among others. No doubt, theory is one of the essential ingredients in explaining communication matters. Thus, understanding theory helps in a great numbers of ways to under communication, research and many other human bahaviours because theory depends on research to provide proof of the theories correctness. Anaeto, Onabajo and Osifeso (2008) when stating the importance of theory, opined that theory is what gives studies a required footing. Also, going by the …READ MORE …

How to Write An Abstract

An Abstract summarizes project or research. Abstract is like a book preface. It gives a clue to what contains in a project or research. Beautifully written abstract tells everything about a project or research. An abstract come as a short summary of your (published or unpublished) research, usually about one paragraph of 6-7 sentences, usually about 150-3150-300 words. To write a befitting abstract the writer must ensure that the abstract contains as much as possible relevant information. A typical abstract must have the following. The title of the work, a research question, the Theory or theories, the research method (s), …READ MORE …

DESIGN A MIXED METHOD STUDY, EXPLAIN IN DETAILS THE 3 STAGES IN THE STUDY

INTRODUCTION Most time researchers especially the experienced one often like to use mixed method approach when conducting research. This approach is agreed more with the position of Critical Perspective scholars who believe that neither qualitative nor quantitative research approach is enough to study a phenomenon. The theoretical bases for quantitative and qualitative research are rooted in postpositivism and constructivism while mixed method is rooted from the critical perspective. In many ways, qualitative and quantitative data are inherently related. All qualitative data are based on qualitative judgments; all quanti­tative data can be described numerically. The researcher may design mixed method of …READ MORE …

RELEVANCE OF CRITICAL WRITING AND REVIEW IN MASS COMMUNICATION

Criticism is an appraisal, evaluation or judgment offered on a piece of art, performance or production which may be positive, negative or both. Criticism implies a deeper knowledge of the art, performance or production under consideration and of the standards of measurement.             C. T. Winchester (Wolseley, 1973: vii – viii), one of the classic writers on the subject defines criticism as “the intelligent appreciation of any work of art, and by consequence the just estimate of its value and rank” and “the general nature of the functions of criticism is much the same whether the object criticized be literature, …READ MORE …

Steps in Content Analysis Research

Content analysis is one of the research methods used in carry out research among researchers. It is a method aiming at the content itself rather than who writes the content. Berelson (1952)  writes that content analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication.” (p. 18). Stand-Alone or Triangulation It can be used only as a research method or use with others in the case of triangulation i.e survey and content analysis can be used together. Content analysis and in-depth interview. Key items in content analysis Unit of analysis  Content categories Coding …READ MORE …

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NAN AND UPI

News Agency Classification: It should be noted that UPI belongs to the 1st world wide news agency while NAN belongs to the third world news agency. World Polar Location: NAN is a Nigeria based news agency reporting Nigeria and the world through the African Eyes while the UPI was based in USA covering US and the world.   Ownership Structure: NAN is owned by the federal government of Nigeria and function as part of the country agent of international communication just like the voice of Nigeria whereas, the UPI was privately owned and managed, although, America government support and finance it …READ MORE …

JUSTIFICATION FOR REGULATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA

Social media is a platform or tools available on the internet for social interaction and communication Examples of social media are facebook, twitter, whatsapp, instagram etc.  WHY SOCIAL MEDIA MUST BE REGULATED As at 2016, more than 80 million Nigerians are on the internet which is about 46% of the Nigeria population. Also, more than 16 million Nigerians are on facebook alone apart from other social media Statistics show that most of the Nigerians on social media are youths (who did not cares about consequence of most their action rather to make money and entertain). Because of these, people use …READ MORE …

WRITING RESEARCH REPORT

Introduction Writing research reports is not a new phenomenon but, rather an integral part of scholarship, industrial and academic world. Carrying out a research is not completed until it is reported or disseminated in order for others to benefit i.e. the need to communicate a research work or studies to other interested parties in the form of; conference/seminar/workshop papers; as articles in journals or magazines; reports to funding agencies and thesis or dissertation for degrees in tertiary education institutions. Thus, writing research reports is a necessity among undergraduate, postgraduate students, academics, industry professionals and researchers. Also, one of the characteristics …READ MORE …

BENEFITS OF LITERATURE REVIEW TO THE RESEARCHER

Literature review offers lots of benefits to researcher. However, for the purpose of this post I will like to be direct. Below are few benefits of Literature review to researchers: A thorough exploration of the literature review will help to articulate our own research problems, objectives, as well as formulating our research questions or hypothesis. It helps to know the existing GAPS It helps to notices the important concepts and variables and how they were operationalized It widens the researcher knowledge of the problem It gives researchers detailed knowledge of the method and design that he can adopt or use …READ MORE …

WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND EMPIRICAL

There are lots of things that make up a good literature for a research/ project that worth to be looking for in a particular material if the material will actually suitable for literature review. What has been done generally about the problem What research methods and designs used What theory has been used What data collection have been used How have scholars conceptualized and operationalized most key variables What are the recurring themes in the studies What are the areas of convergence and divergence in the literature What is the period and time the studies were conducted: decades, ago, recently, …READ MORE …

Sources of Literature for Review

Primarily, sources of data for a research literature is often divided into two (2) which are primary and secondary sources. for the purpose of this post, the sources are combine. however, you can use the link to see the different source. Click on this link. Literature are documented or recorded studies usually in the past that are related and relevant to a particular study at hand. Literature review implies consulting available literature to learn. Textbooks Peer review journals Newspapers Magazines online blogs social media pages documentary broadcast programmes Annual report of organization Government or agencies reports

RESEARCH PROCEDURES OR STEPS

Below are of the steps to be used in carry out successful research as a final year. Select a Topic or problem or issue Reviewing existing literature ( To have depth and breadth of conceptual, empirical, theory, methods, an instrument used and particularly the GAPS) Research problem ( Gaps noticed) Research objectives Research Questions and Hypothesis Appropriate Research method (s) Appropriate data collection instrument (s) Analysis of Data and interpretation Presentation of the result in an appropriate form Publish, share and disseminate the research ( option) Encyclical (your limitations could begins other research problems and become a new GAP)  

FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH

Research has lots of benefits if done appropriately. below are some he benefits of research as highlighted. 1    To make a valid decision about social phenomenon 2    To understand a phenomena better 3    To show relationship between two or more variables of phenomenon 4    To explain and interpret a problem 5    To predict social reality 6     To describe a phenomenon 7     It helps to change our old perception 8     IT  help to validate reject or modify a theory 9     It helps to provide logical answers to our hypothensis

Special Gist that All Final Year Students Must Know Before Project Selection

Project writing has been a nightmare to students; from the beginning (selecting appropriate topics) to the end (project defense). Most students don’t find this easy, sometimes they attributed their weaknesses or problems to their supervisors. “saying my supervisor is wicked, bad, hard, tough, not approachable or just saying too meticulous”. Project writing is not about “MAGIC” rather it is about “LOGIC”. Causes of Students Flop in Project Some students don’t start their project on time while others have actually started. Students valued course work but don’t replicate same in their thesis. Some students select topic for their research anyhow, not …READ MORE …

Commercialization of Broadcasting Station in Nigeria

The history of allowing sponsored messages or advertisement over the airwaves of Nigerian television or radio was replete with disagreement between professionals and the government department. The parliamentarian Act which established the NBS conceived it as a public corporation, which was modeled the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), a non-commercial public service.             But the reality of the enormous cause of funding broadcasting forced the administrators of radio stations to ask the government to allow it go commercial especially because of the criticism from the public that most of the television and radio stations in Nigeria operated as a propaganda tools …READ MORE …

The First Colour Television Station in Nigeria

From 1959 when the first television station in Nigeria began in Africa through the early 70s about for television station with fuel in operations in each of the four political region but they could transmit in the first television station that rout from is all saints operated are transmitted colour was a temporary plateau television station now known as NTA Jos the city of Jos is also the place where NTA is having his training school the television college the college is now available to traveling Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi around degree programs in the respect of television broadcasting and …READ MORE …

Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN)

The Decree 24 of 1977 which created (Nigeria Television Authority) NTA, also transformed the radio service into an autonomous body known as the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) with station identification name is Radio Nigeria. FRCN is also headed by director general who is responsible to a board of directors appointed by the Federal Government, the director general assistance by a team of directors otherwise known as Central Management Community (CFC). FRCN is embarking on expansion program similar to NTA arrangement as more FRCN stations are springing up across the country and today we have at least one FRCN …READ MORE …

Meaning of Research

The word research is defined or explained in different ways by writers and researchers differently. However, research will be explained this way. Research can be defined as a step by step approach of collecting, processing and analyzing data in order to understanding, evaluate, predict, explain and describe or solve a particular problem. Research is a planned process of seeking dependable answers to understand or predict a problem (Anunmy, 2000). Lawal (2005) in his model defines research as: Identify a problem Stating the objectives Collecting and analyzing valid data Drawing valid conclusion

News Agency of Nigeria (NAN)

News Agency of Nigeria (NAN)             “No one knows Nigeria like NAN”, this is the slogan/tag used often by the News Agency of Nigeria. NAN is regarded as Nigeria’s face just like the Reuters and Associated Press etc. NAN was set up by the Decree 19 of 1976 while NAN started full operation on October 2nd, 1978 with the core objective of providing news service to the subscribers in Nigeria. NAN is available across the 36 states of Nigeria, anywhere and always where the news is. News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) offers news for broadcasting media, newspapers, magazines and even …READ MORE …

Nigeria Union of Journalists (NUJ)

            Nigeria Union of Journalists (NUJ) came into existence on March 15th, 1955 in Lagos as a Labour Union body. NUJ is one of the many groups that were founded to champion the struggle for Nigeria Independence in 1960. Although the many of the earlier members were not media professional, this is evidence as one of the founding fathers of the Union, late Chief Olu Oyesanya who spearheaded its formation was then an Information Officer in the Department of Information under the colonial Government (NUJ, 2017)             Meanwhile, when the Union held his second meeting some officers were elected to …READ MORE …

History of NTA

            The Nigerian Television Authority came into being in May 1977 through Decree 24 of 1977 which had retroactive effect from April 1976.  By the Decree, all existing 12 regional television Stations established in the country between October 1959 and 1974 came under the Umbrella of the NTA which became the only body empowered to take TV Broadcasting in Nigeria (NTA, 2013).             In 1976, Television and indeed Plateau State TV metamorphosed from black and white to colour. Funding of the Stations became a responsibility of the Federal Government and networking of News commenced via Domestic Satellite from April 1976. NTA has maintained …READ MORE …

Voice of Nigeria (VON)

The Voice of Nigeria (VON) is regarded as the voice of Nigeria government in the international community just like the Voice of America, BBC World Service by the British government, Radio Moscow by Russia, DW is totally funded by German, Press TV by the Iranian Government; CCTV by China, the Qatar government-owned Aljazeera TV. The channels are used for politics, economy, social cultural and international diplomacy (Akintayo and Akinreti, 2016).             The Voice of Nigeria (VON) is expected to serve as an external broadcasting service otherwise known as international broadcasting with the objective to promote indigenous cultural values through its news …READ MORE …

Voice of Nigeria

 The Voice of Nigeria otherwise known as VON. The Voice of Nigeria started operation as an external arm of the NBC which became autonomous and reorganizing 1991 into a full-fledged corporate body. VON that project the image of Nigerian and Africa to the outside world under a director general. The organization of VON into an autonomous corporate entity was via Decree 15 of May 14, 1991; by that Decree, the station expected among several other functions to provide as a public service in the interest of Nigerian broadcasting services for global reception is such languages and as such time as …READ MORE …

Data Collection Method(s) and It’s Importance to Research

One of the important stages of research is methodology of which data collection methods and instrument is one. However, in post effort will be based on data collection methods.             When carrying out research of any kind, one important thing to note is the type of data that is required for carrying out the research. Sometimes, it could be primary data or secondary data, etc.  Data is seen as raw facts that are processed for information i.e data are facts that are meant to be refined. There are qualitative or quantitative data. Sometimes, both the data and information are often …READ MORE …

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT(s) and It’s Importance to Research

Data collection instruments are one of the essential ingredients in research. There are several instruments that are used by researchers in gathering data but for the purpose of this piece, few of the instruments will be explained. Questionnaire Code sheet/Content categories Interview guide/Recorders