WRITING RESEARCH REPORT

Introduction             Writing research reports is not a new phenomenon but, rather an integral part of scholarship, industrial and academic world. Carrying out a research is not completed until it is reported or disseminated in order for others to benefit i.e. the need to communicate a research work or studies to other interested parties in the form of; conference/seminar/workshop papers; as articles in journals or magazines; reports to funding agencies and thesis or dissertation for degrees in tertiary education institutions.             Thus, writing research reports is a necessity among undergraduate, postgraduate students, academics, industry professionals and researchers. Also, one of …READ MORE …

BENEFITS OF LITERATURE REVIEW TO THE RESEARCHER

A thorough exploration of the literature review will help to articulate our own research problems, objectives, as well as formulating our research questions or hypothesis. It helps to know the existing GAPS It helps to notices the important concepts and variables and how they were operationalized It widens the researcher knowledge of the problem It gives researchers detailed knowledge of the method and design that he can adopt or use new ones. It helps the researcher to arrive at picking a suitable scope It suggested theories previously used

WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN THE LITERATURE REVIEW

What has been done generally about the problem What research methods and designs used What theory has been used What data collection have been used How have scholars conceptualized and operationalized most key variables What are the recurring themes in the studies What are the areas of convergence and divergence in the literature What is the period and time the studies were conducted: decades, ago, recently, 2015 above What are the geographical locations of most literature? What deficiencies or GAPs noticed in the previous work. What are their findings of previous studies What is their suggestion, recommendation and the limitations …READ MORE …

Sources of Literature for Review

Literatures are documented or recorded studies usually in the past that are related and relevant to a particular study at hand. Literature review implies consulting available literature to learn. Textbooks Peer review journals Newspapers Magazines online blogs social media pages documentary broadcast programmes Annual report of organization Government or agencies reports

RESEARCH PROCEDURES OR STEPS

Select a Topic or problem or issue Reviewing existing literature ( To have depth and breadth of conceptual, empirical, theory, methods, an instrument used and particularly the GAPS) Research problem ( Gaps noticed) Research objectives Research Questions and Hypothesis Appropriate Research method (s) Appropriate data collection instrument (s) Analysis of Data and interpretation Presentation of the result in an appropriate form Publish, share and disseminate the research ( option) Encyclical (your limitations could begins other research problems and become a new GAP)

FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH

1    To make a valid decision about social phenomenon 2    To understand a phenomena better 3    To show relationship between two or more variables of phenomenon 4    To explain and interpret a problem 5    To predict social reality 6     To describe a phenomenon 7     It helps to change our old perception 8     IT  help to validate reject or modify a theory 9     It helps to provide logical answers to our hypothensis

Special Gist that All Final Year Students Must Know Before Project Selection

Project writing has been a nightmare to students; from the beginning (selecting appropriate topics) to the end (project defense). Most students don’t find this easy, sometimes they attributed their weaknesses or problems to their supervisors. “saying my supervisor is wicked, bad, hard, tough, not approachable or just saying too meticulous”. Project writing is not about “MAGIC” rather it is about “LOGIC”. Causes of Students Flop in Project Some students don’t start their project on time while others have actually started. Students valued course work but don’t replicate same in their thesis. Some students select topic for their research anyhow, not …READ MORE …

Commercialization of Broadcasting Station in Nigeria

            The history of allowing sponsored messages or advertisement over the airwaves of Nigerian television or radio was replete with disagreement between professionals and the government department. The parliamentarian Act which established the NBS conceived it as a public corporation, which was modeled the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), a non-commercial public service.             But the reality of the enormous cause of funding broadcasting forced the administrators of radio stations to ask the government to allow it go commercial especially because of the criticism from the public that most of the television and radio stations in Nigeria operated as a propaganda …READ MORE …

The First Colour Television Station in Nigeria

From 1959 when the first television station in Nigeria began in Africa through the early 70s about for television station with fuel in operations in each of the four political region but they could transmit in the first television station that rout from is all saints operated are transmitted colour was a temporary plateau television station now known as NTA Jos the city of Jos is also the place where NTA is having his training school the television college the college is now available to traveling Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi around degree programs in the respect of television broadcasting and …READ MORE …

Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN)

            The Decree 24 of 1977 which created (Nigeria Television Authority) NTA, also transformed the radio service into an autonomous body known as the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) with station identification name is Radio Nigeria. FRCN is also headed by director general who is responsible to a board of directors appointed by the Federal Government, the director general assistance by a team of directors otherwise known as Central Management Community (CFC). FRCN is embarking on expansion program similar to NTA arrangement as more FRCN stations are springing up across the country and today we have at least one …READ MORE …

News Agency of Nigeria (NAN)

News Agency of Nigeria (NAN)             “No one knows Nigeria like NAN”, this is the slogan/tag used often by the News Agency of Nigeria. NAN is regarded as Nigeria’s face just like the Reuters and Associated Press etc. NAN was set up by the Decree 19 of 1976 while NAN started full operation on October 2nd, 1978 with the core objective of providing news service to the subscribers in Nigeria. NAN is available across the 36 states of Nigeria, anywhere and always where the news is. News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) offers news for broadcasting media, newspapers, magazines and even …READ MORE …

History of NTA

            The Nigerian Television Authority came into being in May 1977 through Decree 24 of 1977 which had retroactive effect from April 1976.  By the Decree, all existing 12 regional television Stations established in the country between October 1959 and 1974 came under the Umbrella of the NTA which became the only body empowered to take TV Broadcasting in Nigeria (NTA, 2013).             In 1976, Television and indeed Plateau State TV metamorphosed from black and white to colour. Funding of the Stations became a responsibility of the Federal Government and networking of News commenced via Domestic Satellite from April 1976. NTA has maintained …READ MORE …

The Voice of Nigeria (VON)

The Voice of Nigeria (VON) is regarded as the official voice of Nigeria government in the international community just like the Voice of America, BBC World Service by the British government, Radio Moscow by Russia, DW is totally funded by German, Press TV by the Iranian Government; CCTV by China, the Qatar government-owned Aljazeera TV. The channels are used for politics, economy, social cultural and international diplomacy (Akintayo and Akinreti, 2016).             The Voice of Nigeria (VON) is expected to serve as an external broadcasting service otherwise known as international broadcasting with the objective to promote indigenous cultural values through …READ MORE …

Data Collection Method and its Importance to Research

Dh             When carrying out research of any kind, one important thing to note is the type of data that is required for carrying out the research. Sometimes, it could be primary data or secondary data, etc.  Data is seen as raw facts that are processed for information i.e data are facts that are meant to be refined. There are qualitative or quantitative data. Sometimes, both the data and information are often used interchangeably. In research data are collected from respondents, participants, the content of a newspaper, mere observation, interview, music, video, books, etc depending on what the researcher is …READ MORE …

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTs

                Data collection instruments are one of the essential ingredients in research. There are several instruments that are used by researchers in gathering data but for the purpose of this piece, few of the instruments will be explained. Questionnaire Code sheet/Content categories Interview guide/Recorders

Example of a Complete Project Table of Contents

In response to the questions from clients and numerous young researchers especially at the undergraduate level that what constitute a research project outline. i.e what each chapter entails and should contain on average. Below is an outline of the presentation of a completed work (degree project) CHAPTER ONE: Introduction General description of the area of study Problem analysis (Problem Statement)   Purpose of study (Objectives of the Study) Relevant research questions Statement of the hypothesis Delimitation (scope) of the study Significant of the research problem and the justification for investigating it.   Definition of (Unfamiliar) terms / conceptS References, Chapter …READ MORE …

The Research Proposal: Heart of the Research

          Student of masters by thesis and doctoral students know that a research proposal successfully defended is a thesis or dissertation half completed. The research proposal for masters by thesis and doctoral dissertation are in three chapters. These are: Chapter 1-Introduction Chapter 2- Review of Literature Chapter 3-Methodology             If the students successfully defend the proposal then these three chapters will constitute the first three chapters of his entire work. So, research proposal successfully defended is no wasted effort. In the behavioral sciences, doctoral research proposal can run into a hundred or more pages and if successfully defended they serve …READ MORE …

Qualities of a Good Research

            Before a research can be adjudged ‘Good’, it must be in line with the universal standard and the standard is embedded in the main characteristics of a research. Controlled, Empirical, Systematic, Analytical, Objective, replicated, cyclical, and statistical analysis Some of the qualities of a good research are highlighted: The research procedures used should be described in sufficient details to permit another researcher to repeat the research.   The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. Greater confidence in the research is expected if the researcher is experienced and …READ MORE …

Data Collection Method and its Importance to Research

When carrying out research of any kind, one important thing to note is the type of data that is required for carrying out the research. Sometimes, it could be the primary data or secondary data etc.  Data is seen as raw facts that are processed for information i.e data are facts that are meant to be refined. There are qualitative or quantitative data. Sometimes, both the data and information are often used interchangeably. In research, data are collected from respondents, participants, the content of the newspapers, mere observation, interview, music, video, books etc depend on what the researcher is seeking. …READ MORE …

PUBLIC RELATIONS COPY AND ITS NECESSITY

Introduction             It should be recalled that public relations is a deliberate planned and sustained efforts to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and it publics. It means that an organisation, individual or institution has so many publics that it deals with at one time or the other and this publics can be reached through different platform depend on the issue, problem or condition necessitate the communication or interaction.             For the fact that public relations has to communication to the organisation, individual or institution public it does this by writing or present it by spoken whichever way …READ MORE …

Historical Overview of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation (OSBC)

            The journey of what is today called Voice of the West, with four stations (two radio stations and two television stations), began from the snippets. It began on Monday, August 27 1991 when the then Military President of Nigeria, General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida (retired) announced the creation of Osun State. To indigenes of the new State who were serving at the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (BCOS), 27th of August 1991 was the outcome of what everyone had expected.             However, it became inexcusable that they had to move to Osun State to establish the State’s owned media outfits. …READ MORE …

Relevance of Grunig and Hunt to Public Relations in New Media Research

One of the popular models of public relations is one by two scholars Grunig and Hunt and the model is called Grunig and Hunt Model. In this post,  I am going to show you how this model can be related or used to explain public relations and social media usage in this era. i.e how Grunig and Hunt model is applicable to the place of Public relations in this era of New Media, it will also show how  be used for other public relations communication research especially when laying emphasis on Two way communication as justified by the Two-Way Symmetric …READ MORE …

What students must know before starting their project?

Researchcage

There are so many things student needs to know or familar with before starting their project which is important to their overall success and amount of time spent. However, understading this will help you. What idea do you find interesting to develop your problem around. How much do you know about the topic or problem? How much has been done on the idea How fresh or hot is the idea? Can the idea interest others especially your supervisor? Can you finish the research on time? Where would I get materials for my study e.g library, online etc Who is my …READ MORE …

Sampling and Sample Size in Research

“Can you study over 170 million Nigeria population in a research?” NO “Can you content analysis all Nigeria newspapers, all editions in just a research?” NO “Can you study all Nigerian Students in just a study?” NO Why? Because the population is too much coupled with time to complete the study apart from fund and personnel to achieve the task. Therefore, you need to employ sampling technique to get part of the population to study and this part represent the population  Is that clear? Let go…             Sampling is one of the frequently mentioned terms in research especially social science …READ MORE …

HOW TO GET THE BEST FROM YOUR SUPERVISOR

“No one is competent enough to be his own editor no matter his reputation in writing; his work must benefit another person’s look”  The quotation above is a pointer to the fact that every student needs at least a lecturer to supervisor his/her thesis. In some cases, students have to find supervisor before enrolment; mostly at the PhD level i.e enrolment for PhD is based on the availability of supervisor, that is to show you how important is supervisor to your success. Once a supervisor is allocated to you or you get one; you need to understand how to deal …READ MORE …

Why Are My Project Topics Rejected !: (10 Reasons)

Why are my project topics rejected! Why Supervisor May not Approve Your Project Topics! Either of the following may be the cause.. Check it out Maybe you are submitting old topics… try something new, fresh May be your topics are common… be creative Maybe Your topics are not researchable… try to reframe or seek expert May be you cannot defend your topics… try to know many things about your topics May be your topics are not clear… try to check your variables and reframe if needed May be your topics are too complex to complete within the stipulated time… try …READ MORE …

7 Things You Must Know about Your Chapter One !

Get familiar with 7 things your chapter one must contains before you start at all. CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION (should be upper case and in bold letters) 1.0 Background of the study (should be background of the study itself and not the study samples) 1.1 Statement of the problem (should be a clear description of the problem the study intends to solve) 1.2 Objectives of the study (objectives should be listed) 1.3 Research questions (questions should be listed) 1.4 Research hypotheses (for each hypothesis, both the null and alternate hypotheses should be stated; it is the null that should be tested). Candidates …READ MORE …

EXAMPLE OF TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR PROJECT

Below is the example of how table of content of a typical project should look like , though, it differs from school to school yet this is a framework for the beginners TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page                                                                                             Certification                                                                                          Dedication                                                                                            Acknowledgement                                                                    Table of Contents                                                                     Abstract                                                                                                                    CHAPTER ONE 1.0       Introduction 1.1       Background to the Study                                                          1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                            1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                 1.4       Research Questions                1.5       Scope of the Study                  1.6       Significance of the Study               1.7       Operational Definition of …READ MORE …

About Kwasu HND TOPUP and Degree Conversion

What is KWASU HND TopUp and Conversion Programme? The KWASU HND and Degree Conversion Programs addresses the dichotomy between B.Sc. and HND certificate holders. The major aim is to provide a level playing field, by way of Bachelor’s degree programme, to HND holders determined to beat discrimination in the world of work. This programme also provides a platform on which a university degree holder, hitherto dissatisfied with his/her class of degree, could “top up” and come out better. In the same vein, a holder of University degree who may wish to cross into other related discipline is afforded the opportunity …READ MORE …

Project Defense Tips for Students (in 2 minutes)

Carrying out a research, thesis or project has two main part, the first part is to write and the second part is to defend or present it before a constituted panel which could be from within the school or department (Internal Panel) and it could be external panel or both at different time.  It is not an over statement therefore, that defending a project is a nightmare exercise especially for the first timers (ND, HND, BSC, MSC even at PhD Level). Nevertheless, below are the summary and effective project/thesis defense tips that offered me an edge during my defense without …READ MORE …