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Abstract ON online news

The research investigated the influence of online news on hardcopy newspaper patronage in Nigeria. Reading from online news websites, blogs and social media are on the increase among Nigerians especially people who are in the cities due to the Internet penetration and advancement. Thus, this development threaten sale of hardcopy newspaper due to the fact that people read news as it breaks not necessarily waiting till another day to read from newspaper. The study was anchored on Technological Determinism Theory and and Source Credibility Media Theory. A cross-sectional survey research method was adopted while 390 copies questionnaires were administered respondents within Eti-Osa and Surulere L.G, Lagos State to elicit their responses. The data were analyzed in descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage method) and the data were presented with the aid of tables. The study findings out that there is already less hardcopy newspapers in circulation as more readers now prefer online news to hardcopy version. It was evident that larger percentage of the respondents visit online for news regularly especially students who cannot do without surfing the net. It was recommended that media outfits should be diversify in their production by convergent to the new media which is invoking now in order to remain in the race.

Table of Contents





Table of contents                                                                                                   



1.0       Introduction                                                                                        

1.1       Background to the study                                                                    

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                  

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                

1.4       Research Questions                                                                             

1.5       Significance of the Study                                                                   

1.6       Scope of the Study                                                                             

1.7       Limitation to the Study                                                                                  

1.8       Definition of Terms                                                                            


2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                  

2.1       Meaning of Newspaper                                                                                   

2.2       Historical Development of the Newspaper in Nigeria                        

2.3       Functions of Newspaper                                                                                 

2.4       Meaning and Origin of Online Newspaper                                           

2.5       Meaning of Internet                                                                            

2.6       Development of Technology and the Growth of Online Newspaper                                                                                                      

2.7       ICT and Mass Media Transformation                                                 

2.8       Students Awareness, Accessibility and Patronage of Online Newspaper                                                                          

2.9       Benefit of Online Newspaper over Offline/Hardcopy Newspaper                                                                                                     

2.10     Advantage of Offline/Hardcopy Newspaper over Online Newspaper                                                                                          

2.11     The Challenge, the Dilemma of Hard copy Newspaper                     

2.12     Wayout for Offline Newspaper                                                                      

2.13     Historical Background Information of Osun State  Polytechnic, Iree.   

2.14     Theoretical Framework                                                                                   


3.0       Research Methodology                                                                                   

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             

3.2       Restatement of Research Questions                                                   

3.3       Characteristics of the Study Population                                             

3.4       Sampling Size                                                                                     

3.5       Sampling Design and Procedure                                                        

3.6       Data Collection Instrument                                                                

3.7       Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument                                

3.8       Data Collection Process                                                                                  

3.9       Rate of Return of Questionnaire                                                        

3.10     Data Analysis                                                                                                    

CHAPTER  FOUR                                               

4.0      Data Presentation and Analysis 

4.1       Data Analysis                                                                                      


5.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                                   

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      

5.3       Recommendations                                                                              





1.1       Background to the Study

            In the past few decades, the news media industry has experienced a rapid transformation as a result of technological advancement. The advent of the internet has revolutionized the way pee consume news, with more people opting to read news online instead of purchasing hard copies of newspapers. This phenomenon is not peculiar to Nigeria, as it is a global trend.

            Meanwhile, the emergence of the Internet has had a significant impact on the news industry. With the increasing availability of smartphones and other mobile devices, more people now have access to news online. According to the Pew Research Center, in 2020, about 68% of Americans said they get their news from social media, and 43% said they get it from online news websites (Mitchell, 2020). The same trend is observed in Nigeria, where the penetration of smartphones and the internet is on the rise.

            However, the increasing popularity of online news has had a significant impact on the patronage of hard copy newspapers, especially among students. A study conducted by Adigun, Ogunseye, and Okewole (2018) in Nigeria revealed that more students preferred to read news online than to buy newspapers. The study found that 61% of the respondents relied on online news sources, while only 39% patronized hard copy newspapers. This trend is not surprising, as online news sources are easily accessible, cost-effective, and offer a wider range of news topics than hard copy newspapers.

            Another factor that has contributed to the decline in hard copy newspaper patronage among students is the ease of sharing news online. With the advent of social media, news can now be easily shared with a large audience with just a click of a button. This means that students can access news online and share it with their peers, eliminating the need to buy hard copy newspapers (Adigun, Ogunseye & Okewole, 2018).

            Additionally, the rise of citizen journalism has further reinforced the popularity of online news among students. With the availability of social media platforms, anyone can now report news and share it online. This has given rise to citizen journalists who report news as it happens, often before traditional news outlets. As a result, students can get news faster and more reliably online than in hard copy newspapers (Christine and David, (2012).

            In short, the rise of online news has had a significant impact on hard copy newspaper patronage among students in Nigeria. The convenience, cost-effectiveness, wider range of news topics, and ease of sharing news online have all contributed to the decline in hard copy newspaper patronage among students. As more people continue to embrace the internet, it is likely that the trend of declining hard copy newspaper patronage will persist.

            Meanwhile, with the growth of the Internet, access to news online has became possible, this development has in no small way affected hardcopy newspapers and its circulation volumes. It should be recalled that newspaper can be seen as a set of large printed sheets of paper containing news, articles, advertisement etc. and published every day or every week and become stale the next day when new copy emerged. Sequel to the above notion, it could be safely said that online news are the publications of print media (Newspapers) that are made available on the Internet which can be easily globally.

            Today, almost all print media organizations are now migrated online to post the softcopy of their hard copy news with lots of traffics and adverts, it helps them to reduce cost of production and circulation and helps in competing with broadcast media as they can update it any time as news breaks while it also offers them the opportunity to reedit their copy after publishing which can never be possible in hardcopy.

            However, as a result of this development, lots of undergraduates and unemployed graduates have turn online news into business by creating their news blogs, in fact, this phenomenon has made almost everybody a journalist “citizen journalist”. Similarly, one of the common activities on the Internet is news reading or watching either on newspapers website or through bloggers including watching live and podcast news video on video-tube (Youtube), vloggers (video bloggers) on their computer, and smartphone.

            In a recent research conducted by Laittos Multimedia and Research Institute-LMRI (2019) revealed that one of the reasons for online news popularity is because it is cheap and convenient comparing to purchase of a copy of newspaper everyday at N200 which become stale after some minute as new events breaks every hours (LMRI, 2019). It is against this background that the research investigates the influence of online news on hardcopy newspaper patronage in Nigeria with a particular focus on Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State.

1.2       Problem Statement

            At least every year since 2010 a newspaper seize printing and circulating hardcopy particularly in developed nations such as US and UK due to low circulation and emergency of the news online. One of such newspaper is the Independence which was established in 1986 and stop hardcopy printing 20 March 2016, Newsweek magazine ceased print publication in December 31, 2012, issue and transitioned to an all-digital format, called Newsweek Global (Christine and David, 2012). Also, foremost Nigerian tabloid, The Guardian, sacked over 100 staff as a result of the economic hardship in the country (Dokunola, 2016).

            Researches from different scholars and institutions in the recent time have shown that there are decline in newspaper buying and reading habits among people in Nigeria. In a research conducted by Laittos Multimedia and Research Institute (2015) shows that out of 50 persons only one buys newspaper not even on a regular basis.

            However, with the increasing availability and accessibility of online news sources in Nigeria, there is a concern that this may have a negative impact on the patronage of hardcopy newspapers. This raises the question of whether there is a relationship between the consumption of online news and the use of traditional newspapers, and if so, what factors are contributing to this trend. With the proliferation of digital media and the ease of access to online news platforms, there has been a shift in the consumption pattern of news among individuals. This shift has led to a decline in the patronage of hardcopy newspapers, especially among the younger generation. To this end, this study is on the thrust to investigate the influence of online news on hardcopy newspaper patronage among residents of Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State.

1.3       Objectives of the Study  

The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of online news on hardcopy newspaper patronage in Nigeria. However, other objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine the extent to which residents of Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State are patronizing hardcopy newspapers.
  2. To know whether residents of Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State still buying hardcopy newspaper.
  3. To know the nature of information that residents of Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State are seeking in the newspapers either in the hardcopy or softcopy.
  4. To understand some of the factor(s) that is/are responsible for residents of Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State choice between hardcopy and online news.

1.4       Research Questions

In order to explicate the aforementioned objectives, the listed questions provide answers to the research problem:

  1. To what extent residents of Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State are patronizing hardcopy newspaper?
  2. To what extent are residents of Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State buying hardcopy newspaper?
  3. What kind of information or news do Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State seek in the newspapers and news blogs?
  4. What is the core factor responsible for students’ choice of online news?

1.5       Significance of the Study

The study on the influence of online news on hardcopy newspaper patronage in Nigeria has significant importance for several reasons:

Impacts the Newspaper Industry: The findings of this study can have significant implications for the newspaper industry in Nigeria. Understanding the factors that contribute to the decline in hardcopy newspaper patronage can help publishers to develop strategies to remain relevant in the digital age.

Helps Journalists: The study can help journalists understand the changing media landscape and adapt to the new trends. They can use this information to develop their skills and adapt their reporting techniques to meet the demands of online news consumers.

Benefits Advertisers: Advertisers can use the information from the study to target their advertising efforts more effectively. They can use the insights gained to create ads that are more relevant and appealing to online news consumers.

Contributes to Academia: The study can contribute to the academic literature on media consumption patterns and provide a basis for further research in this area.

Helps Policy Makers: The study findings can provide valuable insights to policy makers in the media industry. The insights gained can help them make informed decisions on how to support the newspaper industry in Nigeria and promote media literacy among citizens.

Overall, the study’s significance is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the influence of online news on hardcopy newspaper patronage in Nigeria and contribute to knowledge in the media industry.

1.6       Scope of the Study

The study which investigates the influence of online news on hardcopy newspaper patronage in Nigeria shall be narrowed in scope to Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State. Hence, the geographical scope of this study is Lagos State. The choice of this locations are due to its proximity to the researcher, inadequate time, lack of fund to study lots of local government in Lagos State among other logistics. However, Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State are used to represent all the Local government in Lagos state and by extension Nigeria. While demography factors of the respondents will be examined before the structuring and administration of research instrument (questionnaire). Such demographical variables include but not limited to sex, age, academic level, marital status and many more.

1.7       Operational Definition of the Terms

The following terms would be defined in relation to the research work.

Online News: In this research, online news, these are the news posted on the internet on either newspapers’ websites or bloggers webpage and other social media platforms such as Facebook, Youtube, Instagram  and Twitter etc.  

Hardcopy Newspapers: In this research, hardcopy newspaper, these are the printed copy of the newspaper otherwise called hardcopy which are circulated from place to play through van, tricycle, vendors etc  

Patronage: In this study, patronage, the art of buying or reading news either the printed or softcopy online by the Eti-Osa Local and Surulere L.G, Lagos State.

WHAT TO EXPECT: (Format: MS WORD, Chapter 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Questionnaire and References)

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