ABSTRACT: The study investigates the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture with a particular focus on OSBC. The study was anchored on the Cultivation Theory, Cultural Norms Theory, and Social Learning Theory. A cross-sectional survey research method as a quantitative design was adopted while 100 copies of questionnaires were administered to 100 respondents out of which 96 copies were returned for analysis. The data collected were analyzed in frequency and percentage method and tables. Findings show that OSBC is highly promoting indigenous languages and cultures through news, features, vox pop, and coverage of festivals and carnivals while the death of the Yoruba language, poor attitude toward Nigerian cultures, and economic problem formed the major challenges battling OSBC. It is recommended that OSBC should develop mobile applications and other digital platforms where people can read, listen and watch OSBC channels on the go while the Ministry of Information and Culture and other stakeholders should support OSBC to stand firmly as a reputable channel for cultural promotion.
Keywords: Indigenous Language
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents v-vi
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background to the Study 1-2
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2-3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Significance of the Study 5
1.6 Scope of the Study 5-6
1.7 Limitations to the Study 6
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 6
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.1.1 Concept of Mass Media? 7
2.1.2 Forms of Mass Media 7-8
2.1.3 Meaning of Television Broadcasting 8
2.1.4 Features of Television Broadcasting 9
2.1.5 Socialization and Cultural Transmission 9-10
2.1.6 Mass Media and Agents of Socialization 10-11
2.1.7 Concept of Culture 11-12
2.1.8 Classification of Culture 12-13
2.1.9 History and origin of Yoruba People 13-15
2.1.10 Concept of Yoruba Culture 15-16
2.1.11 Concept of Language 16-17
2.1.12 What is Indigenous Language? 17-18
2.3.4 Role of Broadcasting Media in Propagating Yoruba Culture and Language 18
2.2 Empirical Studies 19-22
2.3 Theoretical Framework 22-23
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Research Method 24
3.3 Study Population 24
3.4 Sampling Technique 24
3.5 Sample Size 24
3.6 Administration of Data Collection Instrument 24-25
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 25
3.8 Data Collection Method 25
3.9 Data Analysis Method 25
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis and Presentation
4.1 Data Analysis 26-34
4.2 Discussion of Findings 35-35
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary 36
5.2 Conclusion 36-37
5.3 Recommendations 37-38
1.1 Background to the Study
Television has become an integral part of Nigerian society since it was first introduced in the 1960s. Over the years, it has played a significant role in shaping Nigerian culture and promoting indigenous languages. The study thus, explores the role of television in Nigeria as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture.
Television as a medium of communication has the power to reach a broad audience and has been used to promote cultural values, norms, and practices. In Nigeria, the promotion of indigenous languages and culture on television has been an essential tool for national unity and cultural preservation. According to Yusuf (2015), “television has become an essential tool for the promotion of indigenous languages, as it has the potential to influence and shape public perception of language and culture.”
One way television promotes indigenous language and culture is through the production and broadcast of cultural programmes in local languages. For example, the popular Yoruba language soap opera “Ireti” produced by Wale Adenuga Productions has been on air since 2005 and has gained a vast audience across Nigeria and beyond. The program is not only entertaining but also educative as it showcases the Yoruba culture, traditions, and values. Similarly, the Hausa language programme “Dadin Kowa” produced by the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) has become a favorite among Hausa speakers and has been praised for its ability to promote the Hausa language and culture (Njoku, 2018).
In addition to cultural programmes, television has also been used to promote indigenous music, dance, and drama. For instance, the popular music talent show “Project Fame” produced by Ultima Limited has become a platform for young Nigerian singers to showcase their talents while promoting Nigerian music and culture. Similarly, the dance competition show “Maltina Dance All” produced by Nigerian Breweries Plc has been praised for its ability to promote Nigerian dance culture (Ogbonna, 2017).
Okoli (2019) furthermore stressed that television has also played a significant role in the preservation of indigenous languages. Many Nigerians, particularly the younger generation, are losing touch with their native languages due to the influence of the English language and the western culture. Television programs in local languages provide an avenue for the preservation of these languages, as well as the promotion of language diversity. As stated by Yusuf (2015), “the promotion of indigenous languages on television can help to preserve them, promote their use, and foster national unity.”
In short, television has played a significant role in promoting indigenous language and culture in Nigeria. Through the production and broadcast of cultural programs, music, dance, and drama, television has been able to reach a vast audience and influence public perception of language and culture. Additionally, it has played a critical role in the preservation of indigenous languages and the promotion of language diversity. As Nigeria continues to evolve and embrace modernity, television will remain an essential tool for cultural preservation and the promotion of indigenous language and culture. It is against this backdrop that the research examines the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture with a particular focus on OSBC, Osogbo.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Most media outlets particularly TV focus less on cultural programmes simply because it is considered a boring topic that attracted less attention as society are now Islamize and Christianize and see promotion of anything about Yoruba culture as against their religions.
As a result of the aforementioned fact, cultural programme lack solid sponsors and without sponsors television and radio station dropped on sponsored programme for sponsored ones. Thereby causing a great decline in Nigerian particularly Yoruba culture and language
Meanwhile, the role of television in promoting indigenous language and culture has been a topic of concern for many years. The proliferation of global media has led to the erosion of local cultures, and the dominance of foreign languages and cultures in many societies. In response to this trend, many countries have sought to promote their indigenous languages and cultures through various means, including television programming.
However, despite the potential of television to promote indigenous language and culture, there are several challenges that need to be addressed. One challenge is the lack of funding for local programming, which often results in a reliance on foreign programming. Another challenge is the limited reach of television in many rural areas, where access to electricity and television sets is limited. Additionally, the dominance of popular foreign languages, such as English and Spanish, can make it difficult for local languages to gain traction on television.
Given these challenges, it is important to explore the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture. Specifically, research is needed to examine the effectiveness of different strategies for promoting local languages and cultures on television, and to identify the factors that contribute to their success or failure. Such research can help policymakers and media practitioners to design effective strategies for promoting local languages and cultures, and to ensure that the benefits of television are shared by all members of society. It is against this background that the research examines the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To examine the extent in which OSBC promote indigenous language and cultural values of Yoruba.
- To examine the aspect of culture that has gained prominence in OSBC programme.
- To ascertain the extent which the use of indigenous language in OSBC has enhanced audience interest and comprehension.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- To what extent does OSBC promote indigenous language and cultural values?
- What aspect of culture gains prominence in OSBC programmes?
- To what extent has the use of indigenous language in OSBC influenced the younger generation in the society?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study on the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture is significant in several ways:
Preserving Indigenous Languages and Cultures: Indigenous languages and cultures are often under threat due to various factors such as urbanization, globalization, and assimilation. Television can be an effective tool to preserve and promote these languages and cultures by providing a platform for their expression and visibility.
Enhancing Multiculturalism: Television can help to enhance multiculturalism by exposing viewers to diverse cultures and languages. This can help to foster respect, understanding, and appreciation for different cultures, which can lead to a more harmonious and inclusive society.
Promoting Education: Television can also be an effective educational tool, especially for children who may not have access to formal education. By broadcasting educational programs in indigenous languages, television can help to promote literacy and learning in these communities.
Economic Development: By promoting indigenous cultures and languages, television can also contribute to the economic development of these communities. For example, by promoting traditional handicrafts, tourism and other economic opportunities can be created.
Enhancing National Identity: Television can also play a significant role in enhancing national identity by showcasing the rich cultural heritage of a country. This can help to strengthen a sense of national pride and identity, especially in countries with diverse populations.
In short, the study on the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture is significant in promoting cultural diversity, preserving indigenous cultures and languages, enhancing education, contributing to economic development, and fostering national identity.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study which examines the role of television as instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture has been narrowed in scope to Osun State Broadcasting Corporation (OSBC). Hence, the geographical location of this study is Osogbo, Osun State The choice of both OSBC is due to their proximity to the researcher coupled with inadequate time, fund and other logics to cover more TV channels.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
It is not an overstatement that a work of this nature cannot be carried out without some hard experience, however below are some of the constraints to this work.
There are many limitations ranging from not knowing where to start, not knowing who to consult or approach for materials not knowing what next to write in various segment of this study and not actually knowing who to put me through in achieving my work and others are:
- Stress from other academic activities is one of the limitations to the research work.
- Financial constraint to travel to different places.
- Duration for the research work is relatively short.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Role: This refers to some of the OSBC stations that are disseminating cultural programmes to the people. Such as OSBC
Promoting: Spreading and promoting of the culture of Yoruba by the OBSC stations who are member of agent of socialization.
Culture: The total way of life of the people of Yoruba nation which includes their festivals, greeting, Foods, arts, dying, dressing, hair style e.t.c
Yoruba: The Yoruba people are an ethnic group of southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin in West Africa. The Yorùbá constitute over 35 million people in total; the majority of this population is from Nigeria and make up 21% of its population, according to the CIA World Factbook making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.