ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of social media on journalism practices in Lagos State with a specific focus on journalists within the Lagos metropolis. The study was anchored on Technological Determinism Theory and Source Credibility Theory. A cross-sectional survey research method while questionnaires were used to elicit responses from the respondents who were selected using a consensus sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage method was used while the data were presented with the aid of tables. The research findings showed that social media have enhanced the productivity of journalists in Lagos state and a great number of journalists use them to source news, and feedback on their live programmes among other things. To this end, the researcher recommended that journalists in Nigeria should undergo training on social media usage and digital literacy to enhance their skills in reporting and managing social media content. Equally, media organizations in Nigeria should develop social media policies to guide their journalists’ social media activities, ensuring that they maintain ethical and professional standards.
Keywords: SOCIAL MEDIA ON JOURNALISM
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background to the Study________________________________________1
1.2 Statement of the Problem _______________________________________3
1.3 Objectives of the Study_________________________________________4
1.4 Research Questions____________________________________________4
1.5 Significance of the Study________________________________________5
1.6 Scope of the Study____________________________________________6
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms _________________________________6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Review___________________________________________20
2.2 Empirical Studies____________________________________________25
2.3 Theoretical Framework_______________________________________25
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design____________________________________________33
3.2 Research Method___________________________________________33
3.3 Study Population_____________________________________________34
3.4 Sample Size ________________________________________________34
3.5 Sampling Technique _________________________________________34
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection__________________________________35
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument_____________________35
3.8 Data Collection Process________________________________________36
3.9 Method of Data Analysis_______________________________________36
3.10 Ethical Consideration__________________________________________37
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Demographic Variables Analysis of Respondents____________________39
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions Related Variables___________________39
4.2 Discussion of Findings_________________________________________48
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND LIMITATIONS
5.2. Conclusions ________________________________________________51
5.3 Recommendations ___________________________________________52
5.4 Limitations to the Study_______________________________________54
1.1 Background to the Study
Social media has transformed how journalism is practiced and consumed globally, and Nigeria is no exception. As the digital age continues to evolve, the impact of social media on modern journalism practices in Nigeria is a topic of increasing interest. Thus, this study seeks to examine the impact of social media on modern journalism practices in Nigeria and the implications of this transformation.
Social media has taken a significant place in Nigeria, as the country’s digital penetration continues to grow. According to a 2021 report by the Nigerian Communications Commission, the country has over 150 million internet users, with about 33 million active social media users. This growth in social media usage has led to a shift in the way journalism is practiced and consumed in Nigeria (Nigerian Communications Commission, 2021).
Social media has had a profound impact on modern journalism practices in Nigeria. One of the most significant impacts of social media is the ability of journalists to reach a wider audience through social media platforms. With the use of social media, journalists in Nigeria can publish and share their content on various platforms, thereby reaching a larger audience (Ogunsola & Olaifa, 2019).
In addition, social media has made it possible for journalists to connect with their audience in real time, allowing them to get instant feedback and engage with their readers. Journalists in Nigeria also use social media platforms to gather news, conduct research, and verify information, making their work more efficient and effective.
Ogunsola & Olaifa (2019) stressed that social media has also made it possible for citizen journalists to contribute to the news cycle. Citizen journalists in Nigeria can capture and share information and news stories, giving traditional journalists access to stories they might not have otherwise known about. Furthermore, social media has created a platform for advocacy journalism in Nigeria, giving journalists the ability to report on and raise awareness about social and political issues that might have been ignored by traditional media outlets.
While social media has brought significant benefits to modern journalism practices in Nigeria, it also presents several challenges and implications. One of the most significant challenges is the issue of fake news and misinformation. The proliferation of fake news and misinformation on social media platforms has made it difficult for journalists to verify the information and maintain the integrity of their reporting (Olumide, 2018).
Another challenge is the issue of censorship and restrictions on free speech. In Nigeria, the government has used social media as a tool to restrict free speech and limit press freedom. The government has also passed laws aimed at regulating social media, such as the Cybercrime Act and the Anti-Social Media Bill, which have been criticized for their potential to stifle free speech (Olumide, 2018).
In short, the impact of social media on modern journalism practices in Nigeria has been significant. Social media has provided journalists with new opportunities to reach a wider audience, engage with their readers, and report on issues that might have been ignored by traditional media outlets. However, it has also presented challenges such as the spread of fake news and misinformation and restrictions on free speech. As social media continues to evolve, it is essential for journalists in Nigeria to adapt to these changes and maintain the integrity of their reporting.
To this end, the research is set out to analyze the influence of social media on modern journalism in Lagos with the view to establishing the extent to which social media has revolutionalized and continues to change news organization and delivery in media institutions.
1.2 Problem Statement
The impact of social media in today’s world of communication, especially journalism cannot be overlooked. Since its arrival, social media have certainly changed the way journalists work, and how stories are developed and disseminated. Media convergence and the integration of social media sites in news gathering and delivery present many challenges and prospects which need to be investigated.
Social media sites have and continue to foster new patterns of media consumption and changes in the competitive environment of media organizations. Traditional media lacks interactivity and participation in news gathering and delivery and the adoption of social networking sites has transformed the media landscape whereas, social media lack gatekeepers as anyone can post and share information on it without being sure of the source and as a result poses credibility and objectivity challenge in the media world. It is against this background that the study examines social media usage among journalists in Lagos State in order to know how social media have reshaped journalism and its implications for media.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
i. To examine the extent to which journalists in Lagos State use social media for their daily routines.
ii. To determine how social media have enhanced the news gathering, feedback, and dissemination of information among journalists in Lagos State.
iii. To determine the challenges facing journalists in Lagos State in using social media as a tool for news gathering, feedback, and dissemination.
1.4 Research Questions
i. To what extent are journalists in Lagos State use social media in their daily routines?
ii. How has social media enhanced news gathering, processing, and dissemination among journalists in Lagos?
iii. What problems do face journalists in Lagos State when using social media as tools for news gathering, feedback, and dissemination?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study which analyzed the influence of social media on modern journalism has been narrowed in scope to the journalists in Lagos State. Thus, the geographical location of this study is Lagos State. The choice of Lagos State journalists is due to its proximity to the researcher, inadequate time, and other logistics. Also, the choice has to do with the ability to ask as many journalists as possible from the area of the print to broadcast including online journalists.
1.6 Significance of the Study
- The study seeks to establish effective ways of integrating social media platforms into the practice of journalism particularly among journalists in Nigeria with the hope to curb and minimize the challenges and negative implications that social media can bring to journalism practice.
- The study identifies the opportunities and challenges the social media networks provide in news gathering and delivery and attempts to suggest the best practices for the effective utilization of social networking sites to advance the growth of business in the media house studied.
- Through the study, the media house will recognize the best approaches to use in the integration of social media networking sites in originating and reporting news content to the targeted consumers.
- The study will help journalists to know how to effectively utilize social media tools for news gathering and dissemination as well as provide them with a guide on how to write online stories. Findings will also arm journalists on how to effectively interact with and integrate their audience online and identify their information needs while journalists who are yet to employ the platform will see reasons to embrace social media as veritable tools to increase productivity.
- The study will fill a new gap as it will add to the body of literature and empirical studies that is available for the students, researchers, and institutions that may want to study social media in relation to the practice of journalism.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Influence: In this study, the influence entails the impact, effects, and contribution of social media on journalists’ performance including how presenters are using social media in their daily operations.
Social Media: In this research, these are platforms to gather news, connect with sources, and disseminate information to a wider audience, this includes Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Tiktok and other web 2.0 platforms that enable journalists in Lagos state to interact and share ideas with their audience while it also gives same opportunities to the audience.
Journalists in Lagos State: These are journalists working in the radio, television, newspapers, and online that are residing or reporting from Lagos State.