No.1 Mass Communication Project Topics and Materials


(Last Updated On: 8th January 2023)

ABSTRACT: This research work focuses on the influence of broadcast media on the voting pattern of electorate in Nigeria with a focus on 2011 General Elections. The research technique employs the use of survey method. Questionnaire was used to collect the required information from the respondents who were drawn from Boripe Local Government Area of Osun State. The population sample covers Iragbiji, Ada, and Iree communities. It was gathered that electronic media influence the voting patterns of the electorates, especially during the 2011 general elections. The research findings show that the electronic media do not necessarily safeguard the votes of the electorates. It was also discovered that the system was beneficial in educating, informing, and enlightening the electorates on one hand and the general public on the other hand to enable Nigerians’ nascent democracy to flourish. Recommendation is that the Nigerian authorities through its Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) and members of the House of Assembly should adopt the electronic voting system, as it is the most suitable means of achieving a credible free and fair election, and will sustain our democracy.  



TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                                                                        i-ii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                                                               iii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                                                                     iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                                                                                   v

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                                                                         vi

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                                                                                                     vii-viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                                                                                              

1.1          HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE                                          2-5

1.2          HISTORY OF ELECTRONIC PATTERN OF VOTING IN NIGERIA                                                  5-6

1.3          STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM                                                                                                               6

1.4          RESEEARCH QUESTIONS                                                                                                                             6

1.5          PURPOSE OF THE STUDY                                                                                                                             7

1.6          SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                                                                                                                  7

1.7          SCOPE OF THE STUDY                                                                                                                                   7

1.8          OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS                                                                                                 8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                                                              2.1          HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ELECTRONIC REPORTING                                                        10-13

2.2          DEFINITION OF TERMS                                                                                                                                13-15

2.3          ELECTORAL VIOLENCE IN NIGERIA: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE                                            15-18

2.4          PREVIEWING THE 2011 GENERAL ELECTIONSS                                                                                19-26

2.5          CHALLENGES & SOLUTIONS FACING ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM                                  26-28

2.6          REVIEW OF DIFERENT ELECTRONIC VOTING METHODS                                                            28-30

2.7          DIRECT RECORDING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM                                                                                      30

2.8          PUBLIC NETWORK DRE VOTING SYSTEM                                                                                         30

2.9          REMOTE E-VOTING                                                                                                                                        30-34

2.10        THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK                                                                                                                      38-40

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                        

3.1          RESTATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTION                                                                                   41

3.2          RESEARCH DESGN                                                                                                                                          41

3.3          CHARACTERISTIC OF THE STUDY POPULATION                                                                              42

3.4          SAMPLE AND SAMPLING METHOD                                                                                                        42

3.5          DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT                                                                                                          43

3.6          VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF STUDY INSTRUMENT                                                                43

3.7          ADMINISTRATION OF DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT                                                           43

3.8          RATE OF RETURN OF QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                                                43

3.9          DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE                                                                                                                  43-44

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS.                                                                                                                               

4.1          INTRODUCTION                                                                                                                                               45

4.2          DATA ANALYSIS (GENERAL INFORMATION)                                                                                     45-47

4.3          ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                                                      47-54

4.4          OBSERVATION                                                                                                                                             54-55

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                                                                  5.1          SUMMARY                                                                                                                                                          56-57

5.2          CONCLUSION                                                                                                                                                  57-58

5.3          RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                                                                                      58

                REFERENCE                                                                                                                                                      59-60    

                APPENDIX                                                                                                                                                          61-62



1.1      BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY           

This research work focuses on the ‘influence of electronic media on the voting pattern of electorate; a case study of the 2011 general elections in Nigeria. However, since the political culture of Nigeria elections have been embedded with violence. The electronic media over the years have embark on educating, informing, and enlightening both the electorate and political parties concerning the necessity of curbing any act of violence during elections, through its various political programmes broadcast on both  radio and television stations across the country.

According to the report by the Human Rights Watch (2004)  virtually all elections held in the past since independence till the attainment of democracy in the country, has been approached by politicians and political parties with  violence, fraud, assassination, ballot stuffing, and kidnapping, by political thugs.

Onwudiwe and Berwind-Dart (2010) identify various challenges facing Nigerians and the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) concerning the conduct of a free and fair election. This was as a result of violence. In the political culture of the country.

As a result of the lapses here and there, both the media and other interested bodies have embarked on national campaigns to sensitize, educate, and mobilize the electorates to abstain from violence during the elections period.

This is why INEC as a body has failed to get it right in organizing peaceful election, whereby 2007 elections under the chairmanship of Professor Maurice Iwu failed, and was heavily criticized by both local and foreign media including the international communities over the alleged high rate of fraud, bribery, elections tribunal cases, ballot box stuffing, insecurity, and rigging of elections.

With the attendant flaws, the call for Electoral Reform Act, was inaugurated in 2010, by late President Musa Yar’adua nominating committee which was chaired by Justice Owais and the National House of Assembly to look into the issue, in which the panel was unable to come out with any positive outcome.

As this lead to the coming-in of professor Attairu Jega as the new INEC chairman, saddle with the responsibility in ensuring that 2011 general election was peaceful, free and fair, and without violence. Which acting president Goodluck Jonathan releases #74 billion to #84 billion to INEC in order to conduct a successful election.

The Electronic Voting Machine System (EVMs) was used during the registration exercise with four component imploring computers in-built device in most aspect of the electoral g the use of traditional process, whereby disallowing the use of traditional ballot paper.

Thus, it should be noted that this research project will also extend its investigation on a possible way of utilizing the electronic voting system, while looking at its challenges and solutions, in other to create an enabling environment for the electorate to improve on their pattern toward attaining the proposed plan of conducting peaceful election in the nearest future. While analyzing and looking at the use of violence as a pattern in the history of electoral election.


The historical background of electronic voting machine would be incomplete if the area of  PAPER BALLOTs SYTEM is ignored which occupies a very important pattern of materials used, which have as today extend the re-enhancement and extension of the process scientifically as electronic voting machine (EVM) or electronic voting system (EVS) in a more collective way.

Meanwhile the use of the paper ballots system is said to employ uniform official ballots of various stocks, weight on which the names of all candidates are issued and printed.

This paper ballot allows voters to record their choice, as they create enabling field in making selection and dropping the voted ballot in a sealed ballot box.

It however was first introduced and adopted by the Australians in AUSTRALIA State of Victoria in 1856, and in a later period, it was extended in the remaining parts of Australia as a country. Also, over the next several years the paper ballot system, thereafter became a prominent figure and dominance, as it was well known and at the same time called the “AUSTRALIAN BALLOT”.

And as a result of it successful usage in Australia which worked well, the crave for the paper ballot system suddenly received attention from NEW YORK, one of the major city of America United State, who recommended it, and at the same time adopting the paper ballot system for its state nation- wide election in 1889, making the United State of America the first to adopt it nationally.

During the year 1996, paper ballots were still used by 1.7% of the registered voters in the world, and majorly United States which makes use of it as its primary voting system in small communities and in other jurisdictions.

Nevertheless, Electronic Voting Systems for electorates gain prominence since 1960, when punched card system debuted its first widespread use, as the USA and seven other countries switched to this method for their 1964 presidential election.

The newer optical scan voting systems which allows a computer to count a voters’ mark on a ballot Direct Recording Electronic System (DREs) voting machines which collect and tabulate votes in a single machine, are used by all voters in all elections in Brazil and India, and also on a large scale in the Venezuela and the United States, which Netherland s not an exception, but have been decommissioned after public concerns.

Internet voting systems have gain popularity and have been used for government election and referendums in the United Kingdom, Estonia and Switzerland as well as Municipals elections in Canada and primary elections in the United States and France.

Also a hybrid system that includes an electronic ballot marking device (usually a touch screen system similar to a Direct Recoding Electronic System) for other assistive technology to print a voters verified paper audit trail, they use a separate machine for electronic tabulation.

In 1996, after a test conducted on more than 50 municipalities, the Brazilian Electoral Justice has launched their Voting Machine since 2000; all Brazilian voters are able to use electronic ballot boxes to choose their candidates whereby 2010 presidential election which had more than 135 million voters, the result was defined 75 minutes after the end of the election voting.

2002, United states “HELP AMERICA VOTE ACT” mandated that one handicapped accessible voting system be provided per polling place, which most jurisdiction have chosen to satisfy with the use of DREs voting machines, some switching entirely over to DREs in 2004, 28.9% of the registered voters in the United States, used some type of direct recording electronic voting system.

However, in 2004, India also adopted electronic voting machines (EVM) during it parliamentary election with 380 million voters casting their votes, with more than a million voting machine.

Also Nigeria cannot be ruled out in the historical involvement of using electronic voting machine in conducting her just concluded election nationwide, as machine used during the last general election were been replaced with newly improve  Electronic Voting Machine, and a specially manufactured ballot paper imported from Asia  China.

According to Segun Adeogun (2002) Electronic Voters Registration had started in Nigeria since 2002, with the introduction of the computerized voting register by the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC).

This computerization of the register represented an electoral innovation and a complete departure from various electoral bodies to complete the voters roll, 2002 was the first time in Nigeria over seventy years of electoral experiment that computer technology was used in the process of compiling list of eligible voters.

As this method helps’ to eliminate multiple registration of eligible voters, during the 2002 election exercise. Whereby information of voters are recorded and saved in a central data base in the commission.

However, the exercise face some delay due to delay in the release of fund to the commission, as a result of these lapses, politicians manipulates the lope-hole making multiple registration at the time the registration exercise kicks’ off, due  to lack of time, which 69 million Nigerians’  were said to have registered eligible to vote in 2002.

As a result of this lapses, it was discovered that a figure of 8.2 million were noticed to have registered more than once when the register was scanned, which such applicant were nullified from the final list that was published ahead of the election coming up in 2003 general election.

Meanwhile the in-build Automatic Figure Print Identification System (AFIS) was attributed as been the brain behind the success identification of multiple voters who registered more than once, as their finger print was detected to have matched the previous once.

However, 60.8 million voters on the voters register after the processing, represent the Independent Electoral Commission (INEC) computerized voters list stating them as the eligible names to exercise their franchise during the general election proper, thus 2002 register. Though computerized, did not contain the photograph of the voters, which many sees as a deficiency which needed upgrading and improvement for further elections.

Although, that the coming in of new Independent Nation Electoral Commission (INEC) under Professor Mauris Iwu, with the zeal and determination to ensure a credible and transparent election I n 2007, embarked on full implementation of the computerization voting pattern.


This research work seeks to proffer solution to problems, for every citizens of Nigeria, and to guide both the present and future generation on how influential the electronic media enhance the voting pattern of electorates, while informing, educating, and enlightening the citizens through its various political programs, on the proper use of the electronic voting system (EVS).

 However, with mass campaign against the nemesis involved in the nation violence political culture during elections over the years.

The research work will be focusing on the youths and adults above the age of 18 years, who had experience and tasted the electronic voting system (EVS) during the election.


            This following research questions shall be answered by the study;

  • To what extent has the radio or television contributed to the electoral process?
  • To what extent do the radio or television influence the electorates?


  • To examine the extent to which radio or television contributed to the electoral process.
  • To determine the extent to which radio or television influence the electorates.


This research is a crucial study, demanding investigative collection and collation of facts’ through data’s’ and information gathered during the course of the research, among which media reports will be of great benefit, and other sources from primary and secondary source, without ignoring the role of the people of Osun state, and in specific, Boripe Local government resident.

Also the view of the political analysist will be work upon in ensuring that this research work has enough information at its disposal, to finalize the completion of the project.

The distinctiveness of this research work will sequentially explain basic component making-up the electronic voting system, and the electronic voting register, as a proposed pattern that needs urgent adoption by INEC if a peaceful election is to be achieved.


The research work is to be carried out as an opinion pool, in gathering reliable information from the people of Osun state, and possibly those from other part of Nigeria residing in the state.

Also those to be considered during the gathering of data will be from 18year and above, who have knowledge of the Electronic Voting System [EVS].


The following “KEYTERMS” shall be the angle at which the research will be focusing upon, toward giving a valid and concise description of the various area of this research topic, which states; Influence of electronic media on the voting pattern of electorates in Nigeria.

E-VOTING: – is any voting method whereby at least the voter’s intention is expressed or collected by electronic means.

ELECTION: – is the process through which voters choose their representatives and express their preferences for the way that they will be governed.

ELECTRONIC MEDIA: -From the sense of electionary standard it can be agree primarily that electronic media are majorly the use of radio and television, with other sophisticated equipment in the gathering and dissemination of information to a widely diverse heterogeneous audience.

BALLOT: -Is a kind of voting method by which voters makes use of ballot proper in marking the name of their choice of candidate, which is dropped in a ballot box, that is counted manually.


WHAT TO EXPECT: (Chapter 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Questionnaire and References)

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