ABSTRACT: The research investigated the influence of outdoor advertising on the consumers/visitors patronage of  Shoprite in Victoria Island Lagos state. The research is anchored on three theories: Uses and Gratification Theory, Psychodynamic theory and perception theory.The research design for this study is quantitative with the use of cross sectional survey method while the data collection instrument is questionnaire. 200 copies of questionnaires were administered to the respondents who were drawn within  Shoprite in Victoria Island Lagos state using non-probability sampling technique particularly accident sampling method and out of 200 copies of questionnaires administered, 192 copies were retrieved for analysis. The data were analysed and interpreted using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage method). Findings show that matured men and women dominated the number of people who visited Shoprite in Victoria Island Lagos state while minors visit the place in accompany of  their parents or elders because majority of the visitors at the Shoprite in Victoria Island Lagos state are between the age of 16-40 years and above. It is evident that visitors to Shoprite in Victoria Island Lagos state. were being exposed to lots of outdoor advertisement ranging from billboard, poster, transits media etc. Also, large numbers of respondents were influenced by outdoor advertisement within the Shoprite in Victoria Island Lagos state. It was recommended that conscious use of colour, graphics, models and strategically placement of advertisement in such a way that will be environmental friendly are the keys to enhance outdoor advertisement. 



1.1   Background to the Study

The essence of being in business by any commercial organisation is to produce for sales and profits. For an organisation to continue to be in business such organisation must generate enough sales from its products or services to cover operating costs and post reasonable profits.

For many organizations, sales estimate is the starting point in budgeting or profit planning. It is so because it must be determined, in most cases before production units could be arrived at.

In an industrial and free competitive market economy, where the interplay of economic variables dictates the market, the problem of survival of business becomes a very nightmarish one for producers and manufacturers. The basic desire of manufacturer becomes how to create awareness and market for their goods. Advertising is then one strategy that fulfils the desire completely. The desire to be buoyant in business and to increase profit has given advertisement an irrevocable reputation.

Yhudie (2013) posits that in an industrial and free competitive market economy, where the interplay of economic variables dictates the market, the problem of survival of business becomes a very nightmarish one for producers and manufacturers. The singular desire of manufacturers becomes how to create awareness and market for their goods or services. Advertising is then one strategy that fulfils the desire completely. The desire to be buoyant in business and to increase profit has given advertisement an irrevocable reputation.

Advertising is not undertaken by management just for fun or to keep products or services. It is principally involved in persuasion or advocacy even apparently just giving us information, using media that are paid for it to get through to the mass audience with the identity of the advertisers being clear.

Advertising, from a consumer viewpoint, is regarded as a guide that helps consumer to choose the most appropriate and rational product for him / herself among the thousands of offers in the market so as the best to meet his/her own needs.

Advertising, when used for various purposes, such as the survival of the companies within this competitive atmosphere, promoting the sale of goods or helping consumers in their choice, is of great importance in our lives. Enterprises utilize several types of instruments and media in their advertising strategies, one of which is outdoor advertisements.

Therefore, the term; “Outdoor Advertising” corresponds to any advertisements located in open air, i.e., outdoor areas. An outdoor advertisement is the only advertisement medium to which we are exposed involuntarily. While some efforts involved for other kind of advertisements, outdoor advertising is unique in which we experience direct and involuntary exposure to messages.

Femi and Adewale (2013:77) that Outdoor advertising is scheduled to be a channel for showcasing product capability in public places.

Kurt (2006) says advertising began with outdoors through window displays, signboards, billboards, posters and other forms of outdoor advertising, advertisers have sought to capture the attention of people waiting for the bus, catching a train, stuck in traffic or walking through shopping precincts.

However, over the last decade or two, there have been significant changes in both the quantity and form of outdoor advertising. Where urban advertising might once have been dominated by static billboards and shop signs, advertisements now commonly adorn bus shelters, buses, train stations, trucks, scooters, taxis, public toilets, rubbish bins, newsstands, fruit stalls, flower stalls, and public telephone booths.

Specialist media companies also display advertisements on screens in lifts, foyers, shopping malls, airports, in-shop displays, and university student union buildings. Furthermore, traditional static billboards and signs are increasingly giving way to screens which can display video and animated advertisements.

 1.1.1    Ikeja City Mall

The Ikeja City Mall is a mall located at Alausa Ikeja, Lagos. It is the first of its kind on the Mainland in Lagos. There is a Silverbird cinema in the Mall. The Ikeja City Mall which commenced construction in May 2010, was initially scheduled to open for trade in November 2011 but opened at a slightly later December date.

A section of the building collapsed on Thursday, December 9, 2010 and seriously injured five people. The shopping center, which features the first and only cinema theatre in Ikeja, also has a 5-screen Silverbird Cinemas and Shoprite Supermarket. It also include specialist facilities for department stores, banks, cafés, bars, restaurants, hairdressing / beauty salon, ice-skating arena, etc.

To better serve consumers, the Ikeja City Mall, home to international and local brands, added new sections to the mall. The new sections, according to the Centre Manager, Mrs. Debola Majekodunmi, include the children section and a cinema hall. Speaking at a recent media briefing, Majekodunmi also stated that the new sections would include popular food court, adding that the step was necessary to make the mall a destination point that caters for all members of the family. Wikipedia (2015).

1.1.2  Major Stores/offices in Ikeja City Mall

The Mall opened on December 14, 2011 and currently has 94 tenants, with some of the big brands, the major stores/offices in Ikeja City Mall include but not limited to the following: Shoprite, Mr Price, KFC, Silverbird Cinemas, Slot, Nike, Adidas, Apple, PC Corner, Chicken republic, Woolworths, Multichoice, Wrangler, Hawes & Curtis, Accessories 2 die 4, Truworths, Airtel, Lifemate Furniture, Philorem Ice Skating, Steers Burger, Seven Eagles Spur, Bheerhugz and many more.

It is against this background that the research examines the influence of outdoor advertising on its publics with a focus on Ikeja City Mall Area of Lagos State. 

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Outdoor advertising stands out as a powerful option for people, being one of the few medium with potential to capture the attention of everyone based on its design, appeal and its location. Human wants, gratifications and choice are insatiable; this underscores the importance ofadvertising a products, goods or services. Robin C. cited in Akinrosoye, (2014) asserts that business should be consistent with their advertising. According to him, “advertising is like driving, you have to use a lot of gas to get up to speed, but once you reach full potential you can cruise. If you slam on the breaks you have to use more gas to get back up to the speed”.

Hitherto regarded as a support medium in advertising business, outdoor media has been a major boost to the advertising world and has also been acclaimed by some practitioners in other field of advertising as a threat to their own medium of reaching the target audience, owing to its cost-effectiveness and ability to reach a wider range of audience both in time and space. The problem that remains unsolved is to what extent outdoor advertisement entices and influences the buying habit of consumers including the passerby and drivers.

Other problem is the durability of outdoor particularly the billboard advertisements as wind and other environmental factors pull it down untimely thereby making it seems a waste of resources.

This research work will consequently endeavour to study how well Outdoor Advertisement influences and brings awareness and perception to the public about a particular product or brand with a focus on outdoor advertising placed in and around ShopRite, Lagos state.

 1.3     Objectives of the Study

  1. To examine the influence of outdoor advertising on purchasing habits of the public in Ikeja city mall.
  2. To ascertain the frequency in which people patronise products/services promoted in an      outdoor advertisement.

1.4     Research Questions

  1. To what extent have outdoor advert messages influence visitors’ patronage of advertised products?
  2. How many people patronise products/services promoted in an outdoor advertising?

1.5     Significance of the Study

The significance of this research aims at revealing to advertising practitioners, advertisers, corporate organizations, manufacturing industries, advertising agencies and the public at large on the influence of outdoor advertising on publics.           

 Advertising industry: It will enable advertising industry particularly the advertisers, agency and advertising regulatory bodies to know what is expected of them by their clients and how to design, strategise and tactical in showcasing outdoor messages. While the advert regulating bodies will realize the need to be committed to effective monitoring advert in order to prevent havoc for traffics and road users. Also, it will change the perception of organizations on usefulness of outdoor media and the challenges.

Academic: It serves as a reference material for researchers, students, and consultants, who may want to carryout research in relation to outdoor, billboard, transit and advert generally.

 1.6    Scope of Study

The research has been narrowed to examine the influence of outdoor advertising on the publics, with specific focus on the publics of ShopRite.

However, due to the large number of people that visits the Mall on a daily basis; it will be very difficult if not impossible to cover all the people. Therefore, the demography factors of the visitors were considered before structuring and distribution of questionnaire to 200 visitors who were the sample size of this research and such factors include are educational background, age, sex, occupation and social status. etc 

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms

Influence: It refers to the effect or impact of outdoor advert on the thinking, view and attitudes of publics towards the product(s) been showcased on billboard.

Advertising: A notice, message, picture or film telling people about a product, job or service.

Outdoor: Happening or located outside, rather than inside usually in a placed in a strategic places.

Public: It refers to the advertiser’s targeted audience; who may be women, men, both, etc.  

Public Perception: It is the view formed by the audience towards a particular product or service advertised in an outdoor media.

Billboard Advertising: This is a form of public placement of advert content usually in a strategically located wall or board designed for the purpose and this is common in Lagos metropolis particularly in ShopRite,.

Transit advertising: The process of placing advertisement on a moving object that move from one place to another usually buses, trains, cars such include LAGBUS in Lagos state.

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