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(Last Updated On: 16th February 2024)

Abstract on BOKO-HARAM

The paper examined the implication of Boko-Haram insurgency in Nigeria since 2009 till date. No doubt, Boko-haram is one of the most deadline sects in the world and particularly in Nigeria and West African- Chad, Cameroon, Niger etc. Since 2009 till date lots of lives, properties and socio-economy and political activities have been seriously affected. Boko Haram insurgency has killed almost 100,000 persons according to Shettima (2017), while 2,114,000) persons have become internally displaced as at December of 2016. The causes of Boko-haram in Nigeria has been attributed to lack of sensitive leaders, weak judicial system, injustice, nepotism and a culture of impunity, corruption in the corridors of power, indigenship syndrome, influence of powerful individuals, unemployment, unregulated sales of chemical, poor citizen’s identification, loop borders, poverty among other. Boko-Haram has caused lots of undenied effects to the nation and individuals in the area of economy, death toll, destruction of properties, breaking and destruction of government institutions, business destruction, poverty and hunger, promotion of state of anarchy by controlling some local government, abduction of Chibok school girls among other. The study concluded that whether Boko-haram disguises under religion, ethnics, political or what?. It is the responsibility of the government and other stakeholders to call a spade a spade, put all hands on deck and bring an end to such ugly activities that has pained Nigerians home and abroad in a bad light, apart from the social-economic and political implication. The paper recommends that everyone should be vigilant and report unusual movement, objects, statements and people to the security personnel while Nigeria Intelligent squad should develop more innovative and technology to uncover issues before birth.

INTRODUCTION: Terrorism is the exercise of violence or the threat of violence against an unarmed and/or unsuspecting population to coerce it to meet the demands of the aggressor. In this context, terrorists usually have as their target a civilian population, not a military force, unless the latter has had little or no reason to anticipate hostile action against it. For example, suicide bombers exploding their bombs in a crowded marketplace would-be terrorists, but small boys throwing stones or even gasoline bombs at tanks in a riot would not be, while the tanks, themselves, could easily become instruments of state terrorism (Alade, 2010).

Alade, (2010) cited in Schmid and De Graaf (2000) define terrorism as “the deliberate and systematic use or threat of violence against instrumental (human) targets in a conflict between two or more parties, whereby the immediate victims who might not even be part of the conflicting parties.  Also, the United Nations General Assembly quoted in (Koh; 2002) defines terrorism as a criminal act intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes… whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other nature that may be invoked to justify them.

According to U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as quoted by The Terrorism Research Center (2002) sees terrorism as unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.

Today, it is very rare to see a country that is not having one form of terrorism or freedom fighter groups or the other. From Al-Qaeda-Middle East, ISIS-Middle East, Taliban- Middle East, Irish Republican Army- Ireland, Liberation Tiger of Tamil Eelam- Srilanka, Hezbollah-Lebanese group, Muslim Brotherhood-Egypt, Al-Shabaab and Boko Haram- Nigeria (Tens, 2017).  

In Nigeria as a nation-state is under a severe internal socio-economic and security threat. As a more general level, the threat has social, economic, political and environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions has greatly affected the nation‘s stability and can be traced to the ethnic militia armies, ethnic and religious conflicts, poverty, terrorism, armed robbery, corruption, economic sabotage, and environmental degradation (Ilufoge, 2009).

Therefore, Boko Haram insurgence becomes the major problem facing Nigerians in recent time. This group has perpetrated several bombings that has killed millions of innocent citizens of this country Nigeria and also caused the destruction of both private and public properties worth billions of naira while many are captive. All these effects of Boko Haram activities are a serious crimes against the Nigerian state, which has threatened its national security and socio-economic activities. This has posed great challenges to the ground strategy for the national security of which the primary aim is to strengthen the Federal Republic of Nigeria to advance her interest and objectives, to contain instability, control crime, quality of life of every citizen, improve the good fare and the eliminate corruption (Dambazall 2007).


Boko Haram activities were described by us intelligence agents in November 2011 as a local Salafist group attacking Christians and local police stations with matchet and poison-tipped arrows in Nigeria‘s northeastern Borno state. Boko Haram is a way of thinking, it is politically driven, they are loosely organized grassroots insurrection against not only the Abuja government but the traditional (Campbell, 2013).

After nearly a decade of violence, Nigerian government still does not have an effective strategy for dismantling the group. The terrorist organization preys on the disillusioned Muslims of the north, who are fed up with corruption. And have few economic opportunities, Nigeria is a heterogeneous country divided by two religious beliefs aside from traditional religion. The northern half of the country is almost completely Muslim (50 per cent of the total Nigerians population) and the southern half is mostly dominated by Christians (40 per cent of the total Nigerians population). Originating in the Muslim dominated northern region of the country, the movement rejected everything deemed western. The activities of these groups Boko Haram grew its ranks by taking advantage of the widespread anger in the north over the country‘s gap. In the north, 72 percent of the population live below the poverty line, compared to only 22 per cent in the southern part (Christopher, 2011).

The political goal of Boko Haram sect is to create an Islamic nation in the twelve northern states of Nigerians, eventually, spreading to the rest of the country. From its inception, Boko Haram viewed Nigeria as a state or a country running by non-believers and made the government its main target, even when the country had a Muslim president.

However, terrorism has become the order of the day locally and globally which concerned authorizes are yet to find a lasting solution to. Critics opined that many reports made available to the general public by the government, journalists and many other stakeholders are based on ethnic, religious, political and personal factors. Similarly, when the attack on churches became rampant people were not hesitated to associate Boko-haram with Islam but the recent attacks on mosques, emirs and other Muslim communities have put Nigerians in total darkness as to what faith is the sect preaching its gospel.

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