Keywords: Sport Journalism
1.1 Background to the Study
Journalism is the collection, preparation and distribution of news and related commentaries and feature materials through such media as magazines, radio, television, the internet (Ewuola, 2002). Journalism is saddled with the responsibility of finding facts, writing news, editing news and other editorial materials that are worthy of public interest for presentation. Journalists work in a radio, television, newspaper, magazine and online news e. t. c.
In our society today, it has been observed that there is gender disparity in all quarters, mass media is not an exception and of all aspects of journalism, few female reporters are being heard in sport desk. It is generally estimated that the percentage of women in the journalism profession in Nigeria is exceptionally low while those in sport is very low.
Sports was originally a recreational activity, but with the introduction of financial and material benefits and an attendant honour to it, the number of participants, the number of events and the struggle for victory have introduced high level politics into it (Joseph, 2000). Consequent upon the expected rewards, fraud, irregularities and injustices have overshadowed the system. However, a lot of people and groups are now interested in knowing about sporting events. Fixtures, dates, time and place of such events become matters of interest. They equally raise a question about past ones and even the plans for the future.
Thus, information and mass awareness become primary in solving this quest for information and knowledge. A special unit or field in the world of journalism takes it upon itself to report sporting events to the public. The effects of these reports both in shaping the behaviour of the public and management of sports in general demand specialization and skills in sports reporting.
According to Josoph (2000) establishes that sport was a recreational phenomenon till the early 1930’s when the first world sports fiesta was held. The processes of selection among different nations led to stronger and more competitive sports among nations and continents. Thus, competitive sports serve as an integrating force, and source of socio-political relationships. As an incentive and motivation to individuals and nations contending to the throne, financial benefits, international honours, merit awards were introduced. Sports bodies such as FIFA, IOC, CAF and NFA were established and employment opportunities created.
The sports reporters gather, process, interpret and broadcast relevant news items needed by interested fans. This responsibility puts them on the move all the time, hunting for facts that will be of immense value to the sport public. It is against this backdrop that the research examines the role of Nigeria female reporters in sport development using NTA and Adaba FM Akure.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Sport is considered to be men dominant activities and business especially the outdoor sports such as football, basketball, folly ball, wrestling etc with women as spectators. Also, those that coordinate sports such as referee, linemen etc including the reporters, sport doctors and several others are dominated by men, making sport men affairs.
Therefore, despite the fact that there is considerably good number of trained female journalists, few of them are working with media houses in Nigeria and only a very few are sport journalists. In fact, many broadcast house does not have a single female sport reporter, analyst or presenter the reason is not far fetch as men maintain their dominance and assert their control on the industry, thus creating an atmosphere of total dominance of the profession and continue to set ‘limits and the extent’ to which women are involved in the practice of journalism.
Other limitations include but not limited to culture and religion among others because in many culture and religion, women are not expected to part take in men affairs and work considered too risky. It is against this background that the research examines the role of Nigeria female reporters in sport journalism with a case study of NTA Akure and Adaba FM Akure.
1.3 Research Questions
- To what extent do female reporters contribute to sport journalism in NTA and Adaba FM Akure?
- What factor (s) hampering effective performance and participation of female reporters in sport journalism?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
- To examine female reporters’ contribution to the sport journalism in NTA and Adaba FM Akure.
- To examine factor(s) hampering effective performance and participation of female reporters in sport journalism and proffer solutions.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Research: Limitations of this research will open a door for new research since research is cyclical in nature.
Knowledge: The core significance of the study is to add to the body of knowledge in mass communication and fill the gap in the area of role of Nigeria female reporters in journalism. It serves as a reference material for future researchers and students who might want to carry out related research on gender performance in media organization and other related topics.
Media Organization: The study will help to provide adequate insight to meet the changing demands in the dynamic media environment of our society hereby helping media managers and practitioners to make better policies. Media manager should as a matter-of-fact train and recruit female sport reporters, presenters, analysis and commentators as this will add flavor to their media sport quality and encourage women viewing and listening habit to sport.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research has been narrowed in scope to Adaba FM and NTA, Akure since it is very difficult if not impossible to study all media organizations across the country due to time available for the study, fund, materials and other logistics.
Therefore, the demography factor of the duo television stations will be considered before the structuring and administration of the research instrument (questionnaire), such demographical factor includes but not limited to age, marital status, sex, education level, religion, work experience, position in the organization and so on.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Role: It means the impact, contribution, achievement of women in the practice of broadcast media.
Women Journalist: This is a mature female choosing journalism as a career.
Broadcast Media: Broadcast media are means of transmission which enable audio, audio-visual of information, message, idea, to a wider number of people listening or viewing usually simultaneously examples are radio and television.
Sport reporter: This is the work of collecting writing and publishing of news stories and articles in newspapers and magazines or broadcasting them on radio and television to inform the general public on things happening in the world.