No.1 Mass Communication Project Topics and Materials

RADIO AND THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST SOOT POLLUTION IN RIVERS STATE

(Last Updated On: 17th January 2023)

Keywords: Soot Pollution


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

We come across pollution so frequently in our daily lives and because we hear about it so frequently on the radio, in print, online, and on social media, everyone now incorporates pollution in their vocabulary. According to the definition, air pollution is a sort of air contamination that can happen both inside and outside. It can also be explained as an alteration in the air’s physical, biological, or chemical composition. When any toxic gases, dust, or smoke enter the atmosphere, it causes the air to become contaminated, making it more difficult for living creatures to survive.

It is said that dangerous substances like biological molecules and particles cause air pollution when they are released into the atmosphere. This could lead to illnesses, allergies, or even death for people, as well as harming other living things like animals, farms, plants, and other living organisms. In 2017 (Wikipedia, n.d).

The various man-made activities that produce it, even though some are natural, put men in danger today, especially those in cities and industrial areas. But of all the risks facing modern man, air pollution has the biggest impact ever because it occurs in the air, which provides us with the oxygen we need to survive. Around 7 million people worldwide died as a result of air pollution in 2012 alone (WHO, 2014).

According to Anijah-Obi, Eneji, Ubom, Dunnamah, and William (2013), the issue of environmental pollution has spread to be a very unsettling phenomena. The planet is plagued by a vast array of environmental issues. But Nigeria’s physical environment, namely the dense urban population, may be the most concerning and worrying factor.

According to figures for premature deaths from air pollution in 2013, the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) reports that air pollution killed 712,479 more Africans than any other significant risk factor in 2013. Additionally, four Nigerian cities were listed among the 20 locations with the worst air quality in a 2016 World Health Organization report on air pollution (WHO, 2016), which was noted in (Kazeem, 2017). However, the focus of the study’s examination of air pollution will be on soot pollution, a problem that is now widespread in urban areas, particularly Port-Harcourt, the capital of Nigeria’s Rivers state.

An environmental hazard known as soot is produced when hydrocarbons are burned partially, as in smokestacks and the exhaust pipes of diesel trucks (Moms, 2015). Soot is frequently referred to as “particulate matter” or “particle pollution,” and it is a term for liquid droplets that are formed in our air from metals, acids, and chemicals like sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides that are emitted from power plants, industrial boilers, manufacturing, oil refining, motor vehicles, and wood stoves.

However, as more people are put at danger due to pollution, particularly soot pollution, in Port Harcourt and many other cities, it has become a serious worry for locals and tourists. Residents of Port Harcourt have been compelled by this trend to voice their complaints about the accumulation of soot on surfaces inside and outside of their homes. In response to public outrage, the Nigerian government, through its Ministry of Environment, declared an emergency about air pollution in the affected districts. The ministry learned that the soot had “incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons,” as well as “asphalt processing and illegal artisanal refinery operations in the vicinity,” as its cause.

To curb pollution, the ministry closed an asphalt processing plant operating in the area. The state government has also blocked Chinese businesses in the city, citing “increased air pollution and violations of environmental laws.”

However, it raises the following questions: How much do people know about soot pollution, its true causes, its effects, preventative measures, control strategies, and other issues related to urban soot? provide people with what they need before, during and after exposure to.

Similarly, one of the effective ways to reach out to the people is to use the mass media especially radio because of its flexibility as it appeals to only the sense of hearing which means messages and campaigns against soot can be received by the people wherever they are even while in the commercial bus, in their home, on the farm, office. Thus, if the soot effects will be controlled in Port Harcourt and other communities, there is need for the government, NGOs and other stakeholders to carry the mass media organisation alone especially in the ensuring that people actually aware of the effects, causes and preventive measures.  

It is against this background that this study examine the role of radio in the campaign against soot pollution in Port Harcourt the capital city of the Rivers State where close to 2 million Nigerians are believed to be residing.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Although scholars frequently report on the media’s role in the degradation of the environment and sanitation in the Niger Delta, little or no research has been done on how the media can be used in the fight against soot pollution, despite the danger posed by the pollution.

It is important to keep in mind that the activities of the refineries and other oil and gas companies in the region have long made environmental pollution a part of the lives of the people living in oil-producing communities in the Niger Delta. Despite this, it has become an integral part of their daily lives, particularly the oil spill, which they continue to manage despite its effects on their farm lands, waterways, and other areas.

However, communities in the Niger Delta have recently been more vulnerable to what are known as “black soot particles” in the air. Many Port Harcourt residents have been complaining for some time about more soot residue on surfaces inside and outside their homes.

Since medical evidence has shown that soot causes cancer, lung disease, influenza, asthma, an increased mortality rate, an increased risk of coronary artery disease, and is the second-biggest human cause of global warming, the risk and danger associated with soot pollution has made it a critical health and environmental issue requiring urgent action.

It is against this background that the research examine the role of radio in the campaign against the soot pollution in Port Harcourt with the view to know how media come in, by educate, sensitise and enlightened on what need to be done and what has been done before.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

  1. To examine the extent which radio stations broadcast programmes campaign against soot pollution.
  2. To ascertain whether radio stations in PortHarcourt allot adequate airtime for the   campaign against soot.

1.4       Research Questions

  1. To what extent are radio stations campaigns against soot pollution in Portharcourt?
  2. Do radio stations in PortHarcourt allot adequate airtime for the campaign against soot?

1.5       Significance of the Study

The primary objective of the research is to demonstrate to the entire world; since little is known about the effects of soot pollution on human health, global warming, the ozone layer, and greenhouse gases, the expected role of mass media, particularly radio stations, regarding soot pollution and environmental sustainability in general

This research will be beneficial to broadcast media and media practitioners because it will enable them to understand their responsibilities regarding sustainable environmental development, particularly soot and other environmental pollution, by developing programs that will not only raise sufficient awareness but also monitor government and non-government efforts to eradicate soot and other environmental pollution, particularly in cities where a large number of people are affected.

Governmental and non-government will set up all work to forestall and eradiate sediment and other natural issues through media organization and cooperation since data is power and radio is a successful media to contact nearly everybody in the general public because of it adaptability and on the grounds that it requests just to the feeling of hearing while it is likewise a mechanism for the literates and uneducated people.

The review will likewise open resident to the destructive impact of the ash contamination and how government are canning be finished to in the event that not destroyed yet diminished while resident will see motivations to voice their viewpoint against its causes as a rule from the oil delivering organizations around them. The discoveries of this study will act as a stunner to the overall population on the need to continuously endeavor to keep their current circumstance clean while they will be more cognizant while going on their day to day organizations and exercises. Future analysts and understudies who might need to additional examination on comparable work or related ones will see this as material extremely valuable to lay hand on.

1.6       Scope of the Study

The study which investigated the role of radio in the campaign against soot pollution has been narrowed in scope to Port-harcourt residents in Rivers State, because the city often experienced soot pollution due to the presence of a refinery that flaring gases including the vehicular movement and usage of generators as alternative power sources. Other reasons for the choice of Port-harcout is because the entire affected cities in Nigeria cannot be effective studied due to geographical structure coupled inadequate time and other logistics. Thus, the georaghical location of this study is Port-harcourt, Rivers State. Therefore, demographic factor of the people residing Port-harcout such as education, age, sex, marital status and occupation were examined before the structuring and administration of data collection instrument.

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms

Role: This is the contribution or the impact of radio in creating awareness and educating people against soot pollution and related issues.

Radio: This is an electronic media of communication transmitting to a wider audience residing in different geographical locations simultaneously and it the most flexible of the mass media in the society.

Campaign Against: It entails various efforts and strategies developed towards preventing, educating and enlightening people of Port-harcourt against soot and other form of pollutions.      

Soot Pollution: Soot is an airborne environmental contaminant from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons and it causes cancer, lung disease among other health implications.

Port Harcourt: This is a city and the capital of Rivers state, it is one of the busiest and host of many oil companies and refinery. Port Harcourt urban area has an estimated population of 1,865,000 inhabitants, up from 1,382,592 as of 2006.


“RADIO AND THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST SOOT POLLUTION IN RIVERS STATE


PROJECT DETAILS:

Format = MS Word, Price = ₦4000, Chapter = 1-5, Pages = 52, References = Yes, Questionnaire =Yes, Table of Contents = Yes and Abstract = Yes


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