ABSTRACT: The study’s objective was to examine the impact of foreign advertising on Nigerian culture with a focus on Africa Independent Television (AIT). The study was guided on the framework of Perception Theory and Accommodation Theory. Survey method was used coupled with questionnaires that were administered to the selected respondents, out of 399 copies only 360 copies of the questionnaires were returned for analysis. Frequency and percentage table was used to present the analysis. Findings show that it is true that AIT aired many foreign commercials on their channel while, majority of the respondents admitted that the foreign adverts are very attractive than the locally shot and packaged commercials. Majority of the respondents maintained that there is negative impact of foreign adverts on Nigeria cultural values. It is clear that English language is often used on AIT for foreign advert. It is recommended that foreign advert should be guided by Nigeria culture, values and norms so that the adverts did not alter our local culture and harm our national values.
1.1 Background to the Study
The essence of being in business by any commercial organisation is to produce for sales and profits. For an organisation to continue to be in business such organisation must generate enough sales from its products or services to cover operating costs and post reasonable profits. For many organizations, sales estimate is the starting point in budgeting or profit planning. It is so because it must be determined, in most cases before production units could be arrived at.
In an industrial and free competitive market economy, where the interplay of economic variables dictates the market, the problem of survival of business becomes a very nightmarish one for producers and manufacturers. The singular desire of manufacturers becomes how to create awareness and market for their goods. Advertising is then one strategy that fulfills the desire completely. The desire to be buoyant in business and to increase profit has given advertisement an irrevocable reputation.
Advertising is not undertaken by management just for fun or to keep products or services. It is principally involved in persuasion or advocacy even apparently just giving us information, using media that are paid for it to get through to the mass audience with the identity of the advertisers being clear. Advertising has the mandate to sell the advertiser’s goods and help the consumers to shop wisely (Okoro, 2005).
Equally, of all marketing weapons, advertising has leading impact on viewers mind, as its exposure is much more (Katke, 2007). Marketing mix has four subsets i.e. product, price, place and promotion and advertising is a component of promotional mix, which is used to create awareness about product and services for taking purchase decisions. Akinrosoye, (2004). Thus, foreign advertising is seen as any advertising that promote products, services and ideas that are not generated, original and developed from the social cultural context of the receivers. It could also means products, services and ideas that are advertised in the language other than the indigenous language and setting of the target market.
However, if advertisement is coming from a foreign country side, it tends to have some cultural influence on the receiver who share different culture with the background from which the advertisement is shoot. This could be seen as a threat when the message is not align with the culture of the receivers.
Benson (2017) writes that with global re-alignment, foreign agencies are dictating business locally. He stressed that practice may erode our core values because what the media feed the society that it reflects in the society. When foreign agencies take over then their cultural values would permeate the materials that they expose. It’s another mental colonization.
For instance, some kind of ads from some foreign countries that denominated air were produced outside Nigeria – Star, Guinness and Gulder, etc. They are good aesthetically but they don’t resonate with who we are. Some are even demeaning. Take the interpretation of the Black spirit in the Guinness ad from a white man’s perspective. Does that reflect who we are or who we intend to be? Therein lies the challenge of the foreign agency take over and use our media to project it without stress.
Therefore, when planning an advertising campaign, there are several factors to be considered and few of such include but not limited to the language, setting and brand. The language of the targeted public (consumers/customers) is necessary because advertising messages will be encoded in a particular language that the targeted consumers/customers understand and that is why the issue of indigenous language comes in.
The nature of products matters because in some community, they don’t eat, dress or do certain things because it is against their cultural values. But the media in the course of trying to compete and survive, the media tend to seek adverts which may force them to generate advert outside the audience cultural context which may influence the audience to cultivate non-indigenous values and moral. To this end, the research seeks to examine foreign advertising and Nigeria Culture with a focus on how advertisement can affect culture of Nigerians.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
This study examines the influence of foreign advertising on Nigeria Culture with a case study of Africa Independent Television (AIT). The current worrisome state of our indigenous cultures is majorly because the media that are supposed to duly rouse the peoples to their cultures and generally effect the transformation of these cultures have simply abandoned their right roles in doing so for the otherwise. Rather, they have resorted to attrition and westernization, dabbing them variously.
Although, lots of studies have been carried out on the influence of “ advertising” but few or no studies have been carried out on the influence of “foreign advertising”, even where those studies exist, they were not conducted in Nigeria and such findings may not be replicated in Nigeria. Consumers get motivated and influenced by advert campaign in their native language or perhaps about products or services that are originated from their cultural related society. In a bid to survive the competitive market and others leading to aggressive efforts to seek advert anywhere in the world. To this end, the research seeks to examine foreign advertising and Nigeria Culture with a focus on how this advertisement can affect culture of Nigerians especially in the era of increasing globalization.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate Foreign Advertising and Nigerian Culture. Specifically; the study is aimed at achieving the following objectives.
- To examine the extent at which AIT promotes foreign advertising?
- To ascertain the impact that foreign advertising of products, ideas and services on cultural values of Nigerians.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent does AIT promotes foreign advertisement?
- Of what impact will foreign advertisement of products, ideas and services on cultural values of Nigerians?
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is the belief of the researcher that this study will be useful to lots of students, scholars, consumers of goods and services policy makers, advertisers, advertising agencies and advertising researchers would stand to gain a lot from this study.
The media will come to realize their major role in promoting indigenous and cultural tags activities rather and resorted to attrition and westernization.
Difference companies will find this research very interesting as it will keep them aware on the benefit of using indigenous language and what people values in advertising campaigns rather than promoting non-indigenous.
Advertiser planners will at the end of this research see the benefit and how people feel about promotional campaigns that are directed to them either having content of them, using their cultural settling or their native language to convey the messages. People that will be carrying out research that related to this will find the materials useful as it will provide them a clue to their own research while it forms part of academic materials that students, lecturers, researchers, company can turn to when looking for materials or existing literature on this concept.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study which focuses on the influence of foreign Advertising on Nigeria Culture has been narrowed in scope to African Independent Television (AIT) advertising messages. AIT was selected because of the perceived nature of several advertising campaigns that are non-indigenous on the channel. Another rationale for limiting the scope to AIT is due to time and fund to study as many television channels as possible while proximity of the AIT to the researcher is another edge to study it because it is within the reach of the researcher compared to other channels.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Foreign Advertisement: This refers to various advertising campaigns on African Independent Television that are dominated by foreign content or promoting non-Nigeria culture or products or services.
Advertising: – These are the paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of idea, goods or services by an identified sponsor on AIT.
Nigeria Culture: These are various norms, values and belief system of Nigerians in terms of social lifestyle, eating style, music etc that are valued lots by the society.
AIT: This is first private television station in Nigeria and it full meaning is African Independent television, the stations offers both indigenous adverts and non-indigenous advertising messages.
Indigenous Advertising: This means advertising and other forms of promotions of products, services or ideas that originates or produce in Nigeria.