EFFECTIVENESS OF DETERGENT ADVERTISEMENT ON STUDENTS BUYING HABIT

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effectiveness of detergent advertisement on students buying habit. The research was anchored on Uses and Gratifications and Perception Theories apart from the depth of conceptual review and empirical studies. Advertisement has influenced purchasing power by luring consumers towards buying goods. The study adopted the survey research method while the research used a questionnaire as data collection instrument. The data collected was analyzed using the Descriptive Statistics (Frequency and Percentage) method. The finding shows that students like Good Mama and Clean Detergents, Most of the respondents (91.5%) have high exposure to detergents advertisement while the majority of the respondents exposed to detergents adverts on social media (29.%) and TV (27.6%) followed by billboard (20.7%). Also, a substantial number of respondents (78%) said detergent advertising influence respondent on their purchasing decision highly. It was recommended that advert should defog of deceived so that students can make the right choice. Students of advert and marketing be thought especially on the Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) especially to ensure understanding of the new media among others. Companies should watch over some sites that may be using their name or related to dupe people online, for instance, there was a time when someone imitates the Shell Oil website where he was offering job application after which he asked each applicant to pay a sum of 2000 into a bank account to get a pass for an interview. After sometime, it was discovered that it was a fraudster site. 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

            Advertisement is one of the key elements for the development, expansion, and growth of the industrial sector and ultimately for economic development. The media and advertising campaigns are unavoidable by consumers in the 21st century. Researchers have studied and will continue to study the effects of advertising and its influence on attitudinal change, emotions, modification of lifestyle choices and its significant role in the consumption of goods and services (Horne, 2006) cited in Akinrosoye (2011).

            Advertising, over the years, has evolved into a powerful marketing tool in modern economics; advertising plays an important role in the growth of a business in its line of expertise. Advertising is a persuasive non-personal communication about products, services, or ideas usually paid for by identified sponsors through the various mass media. Today, we are exposed to advertisements everywhere, whether on the bus, walking around the street, on the high ways, while travelling, in the newspapers and on radio and television, SMS advert receive on our mobile phones, email advert/marketing we get in our inbox and particularly when surfing the internet. 

            Advertising is one of the ingredients in sustaining business whether the company is dealing with products or services. The entire business of a commercial organization or company starts and ends with advertising. That is to say, the rise and fall of the profit of a company depend solely on the expenditure incurred by the advertiser.

            It should be noted that when planning an advertising campaign, one of the things to be considered from the outset is the type of media to be used because different media performs present different purposes and offer a different kind of results. Children advertisement is better channelled through television while adult adverts can pass messages from radio, TV, billboard and print media. Illiterates cannot grab messages from newspapers, social media and other literate media.        

            Advertising is a form of marketing communication used to persuade an audience to take or continue some actions, usually with respect to a commercial offering, or political or ideological support. In Latin, “ad vertere” means to “to turn toward”. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful.        

            It should be noted that adverts are placed where advertisers believe they will reach the largest, most relevant audience. Commercial businesses use advertising to drive the consumption of their product, while a non-profit organization may place adverts to raise awareness or encourage a change in behaviour or perception.

            It should be noted that consumers don’t just buy advertised goods and services because they have enough money but rather are motivated by certain motives. Smriti (2007) writes that buying motive is the urge or motive to satisfy a desire or need that makes people buy goods or services. Motive saw as thoughts, feelings, emotions and instincts, which arouse in the buyers a desire to buy. A buyer does not buy because s/he has been persuaded by the salesman, but s/he buys for the aroused desire in him or her. In another word, a motive is simply a reason for carrying out a particular behaviour and not an automatic response to a stimulus.

            According to Smriti (2007), motives that drive advertisement include pride or prestige, emulation or imitation, affection, comfort or desire for comfort, sex appeal or sexual attractions, ambition, desire for distinctiveness or individuality, desire for recreation or pleasure, hunger and thirst, habit etc. On the other hand, Wikipedia (nd) sees a detergent as a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleansing properties in dilute solutions. These substances are usually alkylbenzene sulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxylate (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water. Some of the examples of detergents are, Omo, Klean, WAW, Good Mama, Sunlight, Miss Bimbo, Canoe, Tempo, So Clean, Ariel etc.  To this end, the research investigated the influence of advertisement on the choice of detergents among students with a particular focus on the University of Uyo.

1.2       Statement of Problem

            For a business to yield profit and survive in any competitive environment it needs the help of advertising and because of this, many entrepreneurs or companies indulge in illegal advertising so as to get what they want in business. By so doing, they introduce fraudulent and unethical practices that mislead the public, customers, or consumers into leaving the better brand to the worse brand and also into buying the wrong products known as imitations. Adeagbo (2011). This practice makes the advertising profession lose its good essence, credibility and interest. It also discourages consumers from paying attention to advertising messages.

            Many advertised products and services are unable to perform their functions as advertised to the consumers. Similarly, the audience or consumers were unable to comprehend advertised messages because of the language used, meaning that at times local language should be used rather than the English language.

            Many studies have been conducted on advertising generally, some focused on Television, newspapers, billboards and online. Prakash (2017); Olayinka, (2016); Aminu (2013), Akbar & Paul (2014).

            But every little of such studies focused especially on detergents. It is against this background that the study investigates the influence of advertisement on the choice of detergents among students with reference to the students in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom state.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

            The general objective of the study is; to investigate the influence of advertisement on the choice of detergents among students of the University of Uyo.

The specific objectives are

  1. To what extent do UNIUYO students expose to detergents advertisements?
  2. What type of media do students often expose to detergents advertising?
  3. To what extent do advertisements influence UNIUYO students purchasing decisions of detergents?

1.4       Research Questions

The study formulated the following research questions. 

  1. To what extent do UNIUYO students expose to detergents advertisements?
  2. What type of media do students often expose to detergents advertising?
  3. To what extent do advertisements influence UNIUYO students purchasing decisions of detergents?

1.5       Scope of the Study

            The study which examines the influence of advertisement on the choice of detergents among students was narrowed in scope to students of University of Uyo. The choice of THE students of UNIUYO was due to the proximity to the researcher, inadequate time to study all students in Nigeria.

            Also, the demographic factors of the respondents will be studied before the administration of the research instrument such factors include: age, gender, academic level e.t.c. Also, out of so many related theories, Uses and Gratifications and Perception Theories was considered in this study.

1.6       Significant of the Study

            The findings of this study will benefit the following groups and individuals. Some of the benefits of the study are students, consumers, policymakers, advertisers, advertising agencies and advertising researchers would stand to gain a lot from the facts contained in this work.

            It will assist advertisers and advertising agencies to understand the concept of advertisement, especially, what consumers want, how they want it and the media they are often exposed to in order to know how to target them.

            Another beneficiary of this study is the media practitioner, the media practitioners are a major part of the advertising family because advert messages usually pass through them so that the media audience will be exposed to such message, as a result, the media need to be watchful on the content their majority of the audience wish to be exposed to, media may begin to lose their audience. Therefore, the media stations need to do audience research.

            Detergent industries will benefit lots from the study with the view to know what is expected of them in the aspect of advertising strategies and tactics to persuade and lure consumers to make their choice while it will also enable them to structure their adverts and brands to make them more appealing in order to improve sales and lead to better performance.

The findings of this research serve as an eye-opener for many traditional advertising agencies to join other advertising media such as social media, email and other e-media to their practice. This study gives a clear insight into how advertising campaigns can influence consumers buying behaviour which encouraged brand owners to use suitable media of communication to market their products.

Policy formulators will equally benefit from the research by using the information of study findings to make laws that will improve advertising, especially some untrue statements in some advertising messages. Government and policy formulators can through some agencies like APCON approve, edit among other monitoring advertisement messages i.e government through her agencies would see the need to enforce truthfulness, fairness and non- deceit contents in advert messages in order to safely guide the public interest.

It will assist students of mass communication, advertisement, marketing and another related field to understand the concept of advertisement. The findings of this study will serve as an addition to the existing literature on the topic for students who like to carry out similar research

            This research provides benefits for researchers and practitioners. For researchers, this study attempts to provide a greater understanding of advertising information and knowledge. Future researchers will find the material relevant as it forms bulk literature that exists in the field of mass communication, journalism and media studies, that they can lay hands on when carrying out research related or similar to this.

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms

Influence: It refers to the effect or contribution of an advertisement on the choice of detergents among students.

Advertisement: This is a paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor. The message is usually disseminated through one or more of the mass media for the purpose of detergents promotion

Choice of detergents: In this study, the choice of detergent simply means to have an interest in using a particular detergent often and often.

Students: These are mainly students of the University of Uyo particularly those who are in 100 level to 400 level and 500 level as the case may be.

 

References

Prakash, P. (2017). Impact of Television Advertising of Cosmetic Products on Consumer Behavior. KMC (Koteshwor Multiple Campus) Research Journal, 57-75

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Olayinka, S. O. (2016). Audience perception and believability of social media adverts. A thesis submitted to the department of Mass Communication, University of Ilorin.

Akbar, S. J. & Paul, T. J. (2014). Consumers’ attitude towards online shopping: Factors influencing employees of crazy domains to shop online. Journal of Management & Marketing Research, 2014, 4(1).  Retrieved January 23th, 2021 from          http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts /131640.pdf

Aminu, S. A. (2013). Challenges Militating against Adoption of Online Shopping in Retail Industry in Nigeria. Journal of Marketing Management, 1(1), 23-33

Akinrosoye, I. (2011). Introduction to Advertising. Ibadan: Ejon Publishers Limited.        

Adeagbo, S. A. (2012). Fundamentals of modern advertising. Ibadan: Sandmarks Innovations

Smriti, C. (2007). Classification of Buying Motives: Product Buying and Patronage Buying. Retrieved January 17th, 2021 from           https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/products/classification-of-buying-motives-product-buying-and-patronage-buying  

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Wikipedia (nd). Detergent. Retrieved January 15th, 2021 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detergent

Sew Guide (nd). 10 Different types of Detergents & other Cleaning products for clothes. Retrieved  January 17th, 2021 from https://sewguide.com/detergents-and-cleaning-products/

Woodford, C. (2020). Detergents and soaps. Retrieved January 16th, 2021 from https://www.explainthatstuff.com/detergents.html

Online Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary & Thesaurus (2021). Detergent. CambridgeUniversity Press. Retrieved January 17th, 021 from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/detergent

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