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(Last Updated On: 23rd May 2023)

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the impact of smartphones as a tool for news gathering and reporting by Journalists in Lagos State. There is no gainsaying that smartphone aids news reporting especially since smartphone has become a tool in the hand of journalists in 21 the century. Apart from the fact that it helped in news gathering, it equally aids news editing, sharing information, lesser noise, and more meaningful interaction. The research was anchored on Technological Acceptance Model (TAM) and Technological Determinism Theory (TDT). The study used a survey research method while questionnaire was used as data collection instrument to elicit responses from the respondents who are registered journalists in Lagos. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage method using SPSS version 23 while data were presented with the aid of tables. The findings of the study showed that respondents significantly make use of smartphones. Also, respondents’ significant level of usage of smartphones for news gathering and reporting is high especially in accessing the internet to get information and check facts. The study recommended that media organizations should further encourage the use of technological gadgets the likes of smartphones, so as to be technologically abreast in this information and communication technology world, symposium and seminars should be organized to further intimate journalists on the optimum use of the smartphone to get the best of journalism off it, and also encourage the appropriate use of the relevant functions of smartphones as storage for an important document is found to be the least usage of smartphone amidst journalists in Lagos state.



Title Page                                                                                                                    




Table of Contents                                                                                                       



1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Objectives of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Significance of the Study

1.6       Scope of the Study

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms



2.1       Introduction

2.2       Conceptual Framework

2.3       Empirical Review

2.4       Theoretical Framework


3.1       Introduction

3.2       Research Design

3.3       Research Method

3.4       Population of Study

3.5       Sample Size

3.6       Sample Procedure

3.7       Instrument for Data Collection

3.8       Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument       

3.9       Data Collection Process

3.10     Data Analysis


4.0     Introduction

4.1     Demographic Analysis

4.3    Answer to Research Questions

4.4    Discussion of Findings


5.0     Introduction

5.1     Summary

5.2     Summary of Research Findings

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Limitations

5.5      Recommendations





1.1       Background of the Study

Electronic News Gathering (ENG) in journalism refers to the use of electronic Video and audio technology by reporters and editors to gather and display news. The scope of ENG can range from a lone reporter using a single professional video camera to a whole television crew driving a truck on location. However, the most recent ENG is the smartphone (Allan, 2006). Meanwhile, the effort will have dwelled extensively on smartphones.

Edeh (2014) pointed out that the role of ICT, especially smartphones and the internet cannot be overemphasized, as they serve a pivotal function in changing and altering the practice of journalism in the world. It has of course given a level of professional touch to journalism, but also given room to amateur and citizen journalism. Journalism in this clime now requires little or no certification even in some media organizations.

Similarly, the revelation of the great academic prophet, Marshal McLuhan on ICT taking over and revolutionizing the world was subsumed in the coined phrase ‘global village’. This phrase as explicated reveals the certainty of electronic communication uniting the world and turning it into one small village (Oketunmbi, 2005). Sequel to this, the advent of smartphones has done a better job of fulfilling McLuhan’s prophesy, as it is no more just a globalized village but having the world in the palm of a hand per time i.e. control of the communication medium in our hands (Kobackova, 2015).

In line with the fast growth of technology, smartphone came as one of the electronic telecommunication device which allows for long distance communication (Alfred & Atkin, 2020). Smartphone can be referred to as a minicomputer, with features and functions of a computer in handy form (Rambitan, 2015). Smartphone as having the ability of computer coupled with the conventional functions of the mobile phone, adding that Smartphone is a mobile phone that has the ability of a computer, and provides users with more advanced communication and computing ability than the traditional mobile phone equipped with internet access, a camera with high quality, and management tools. Latest smartphones are viewed as handheld computers rather than normal phones because of their powerful computing ability and large memory (Singh & Samah, 2018).

The capacity of running feature-rich applications (apps) on smartphones made smartphones a more powerful device replacing many devices such as alarm clocks, calculators, laptops, GPS navigators, and digital cameras. The mobile handset has rapidly moved beyond voice telephony or even simple text-based communication which it started on into more complex multi-platform delivery systems; some of the latest models are portable digital media production and data transfer systems with configurations of features such as still and video camera capabilities, multimedia file swapping, global positioning satellite receivers, music players, access to radio and television content, email and Web browsers, databases, address books, calendars, clocks, games and many other downloadable and upgradeable software applications (Cameron, 2006).

To date, much of the professional practice of Mobile Journalism (MoJo) appears to have originated within print-based newsrooms that are experimenting with adding multimedia elements to their Web-based publications (Cameron, 2007). MoJo is generally seen as being able to respond quickly to breaking news events, often operating away from the newsroom environment for extended periods of time.

Talabi (2011) posited that the smartphone with the internet on its leverage has its own revolutionized effect on journalism, which not only implicate the practice of journalists but also that of the information/news consumption practice of the audience as well.

Garyantes and Berkey-Gerard (2015) as well posited that mobile devices such as smartphones and media tablets brings significant technical innovations to the news industry, as users are offered the ability to produce as much as they consume. Hence, the use of new digital tools to garner better access and connection to the audience, is the main focus and attention of the new technologically upgraded media, making sure that communication is more meaningful interaction.

Social media particularly Twitter which was made possible by smartphone has made it easy to follow celebrities and politicians that break into the news very often like Lai Muhammed, Boss Mustapha, Ayodele Fayose, Fai Fani-Kayode, Babatunde Fashola, Fami Adeshina, Garba Sheu and so on. Journalists equally use Twitter and other social media to source news, images, and so on. It is against this backdrop that the research investigates the increasing the use of smartphones as tool for news gathering tool among journalists in Osun State.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

It is no small responsibility saddled on the media to keep people abreast of the happening around them. This has necessitated the need for the help of technological tools like smartphones to ease the work of reporters and improve their efficiency from the slow pace and oftentimes cumbersome process of gathering and disseminating news with a limited audience reach. ICT has brought a number of improvements to journalism as it doesn’t have to endure the analogue system, where it takes longer time and duration for reporters to gather information and package reports, and often not making deadlines (Kwanya, 2014).

Studies on smartphones and their influence have mostly been focused on society  (Osazee-odia, 2016), or students in higher institutions of learning (Singh & Samah, 2018;  Adelabu, Sanusi & Esiri, 2015), little has been done to consider how journalists feel about the usage of smartphone at work, how efficient/distracting it is, as well as the overall perceived impact it has on their working activities, which this study give serious consideration and attention to. It is against this backdrop that the research investigates the increasing use of smartphones as a tool for news gathering tool among journalists in Osun State.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to look at the increasing use of smartphones as a tool for news gathering among journalists while the specific objectives are:

i.       To find out the level of smartphone usage among journalists in Osun State for news gatherings.

ii.      To determine the attitude of journalists in Osun State towards the use of smartphones as a tool for news gathering.

1.4       Research Questions

In order to explicate the aforementioned objectives, the listed questions provide answers to the research problem:

i.       To what extent are journalists in Osun State use smartphone for news gathering?

ii.       What is the attitude of journalists in Osun State to the use of smartphones as a tool for news gathering?

1.5       Significance of the Study

This study is intended at finding out the level of adoption and usage of the various function and beneficiary accessories on smartphones by the journalists in Osun state, in the course of performing their duties as journalists, hence drawing inferences on the impact of smartphones on journalists. Therefore, it is important for journalists to rate and measure the level of their usage and adoption of smartphones in the course of their work.

This study is also essential to serving stakeholders in the media with the needed insight and encouragement as to the vast opportunities and efficiency that can be achieved in the course of adopting the usage of smartphones by journalists, taking a focus to motivation as well as education on the optimal use of it.

1.6       Scope of the Study

This study which investigates the increasing use of smartphones as a tool for news gathering among journalists will be streamlined to journalists in Osun State. Specifically, the registered journalists as held in the record of the National Union of Journalists, Osun State chapter shall be covered in the scope of the study. In terms of membership and active registration with the NUJ Osun State chapter. The unregistered journalists will be excluded as no record of them. The geographical scope of this study is within Osun State.

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms

Smartphone: This is a handheld device, capable of providing wireless voice communication along with support for other applications, which is made use of by the journalists in smartphones in the processes involving in activities of news gathering and reporting.

News gathering: This is the totality of the processes and activities involved in news gathering and reporting as carried out by journalist in smartphones.

Journalists: these are the trained and certified personnel who gather and report news/information for an acclaimed media establishment in Osun State and are equally registered and certified by the NUJ Osun State chapter.


WHAT TO EXPECT: (Format: MS WORD, Chapter 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Questionnaire and References)

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