Effectiveness of Product Endorsements by Celebrities in Advertising

Celebrity endorsement or celebrity branding is a form of advertising campaign or marketing strategy used by brands, companies, or a non-profit organization which involves celebrities or a well-known person using their social status or their fame to help promote a product, service or even raise awareness on environmental or social matters.
Marketers use celebrity in hopes that the positive images of the celebrity endorser of the brand will also be passed on to the products or the brand image associated with the celebrities. Glo is one of the brands that use celebrities in promoting its brand and most of these celebrities are often referred to as Glo ambassadors and they often participate in the Glo advert and marketing strategies. The following are some of the celebrities used by the Glo: Van Vicker
Martha Ankomah (Actress), Juliet Ibrahim, Nadia Buhari, Yvonne Nelson and Bastie Samir (Boxer) (Ghana News Agency, 2018).
1.1 Background of the Study
Celebrity branding is also known as celebrity endorsement, and is a form of publication by portraying a well-recognized sports or entertainment celebrity to be a brand ambassador for a company or firm, and by using their social status to promote a service or product (Jain, Sudha, and Daswani (2009). Marketers spend enormous amounts of money annually on celebrity endorsement contracts based on the belief that celebrities are effective spokespeople for their products or brands.
Celebrity endorsement is viewed as a billion dollar industry in today’s era. Various companies are signing deals with celebrities in the hope that by using celebrities they can accomplish a unique and relevant position in the minds of the consumers (Mersid and Nedim, 2013). Celebrity endorsement is increasingly being employed across various industries regardless of the product type. It is known to be playing the role of a signaling strategy. Also, celebrity endorsement can give a brand a touch of glamour.
Celebrities are people who enjoy public recognition by a large share of a certain group of people whereas attributes like attractiveness, extraordinary lifestyle are just examples and specific common characteristics cannot be observed though it can be said that within a corresponding social group, celebrities generally differ from the social norm and enjoy a high degree of public awareness (Rasha and Kevin, 2015).
This is true for classic forms of celebrities like actors, models, sports athletes, entertainers and pop stars but also for less obvious groups like businessmen or politicians. Celebrities appear in public in different ways. First, they appear in public when fulfilling their profession, an example is Lionel Messi who is loved by millions for his wonderful performance in football/soccer. Furthermore, celebrities appear in public by attending special celebrity events examples are; Award shows, Fund raisers etc. In addition they are present in News, Fashion magazines and tabloids, which provide second source of information on events and private life of celebrities through mass media channels. Last but not the least celebrities act as spokes people in advertising to promote products and services (Rasha and Kevin, 2015).
Models are the use of well-known persons face to help promote a product or service often through radio, television, newspaper, magazine, billboard, digial platforms, online etc. It also involves celebrities appearances at events of Glo such as launching, get together. It may involve celebrity use display of product in the public with the intention to boost sales volume and have positive impact on the product.
However, one of the brands that use celebrities lots in its advertisement and other marketing means is Glo as a means of competing with other brands in the marketing. One of the many reasons for introducing celebrities in advertisement by Glo include but not limited to the following:
i. Glo has MTN and Airtel as main competitors up to date.
ii. Glo is among the three most popular telecommunication networks in Ghana and many countries.
iii. Glo wants to generate more publicity.
iv. Glo wants to remind consumers more in different way.
It is against this background the research examines the effectiveness of product endorsements by celebrities in advertising with a particular focus on GLO Network, Ghana with the view to know the extent which Glo use celebrities endorsement and how much it has impacted on the consumers buying habit.

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