ABSTRACT: Corruption is one of the enemies of Nigeria while campaign against corruption has been one of the focuses of President Muhammadu Buhari since his coming into power on May 29, 2015 and it is on this thrust that the study examines the influence of mass media in the fight against corruption in Nigeria because the media is seen as the fourth estate of the realm and watch dog of the people in political offices. There is no gaining saying in the fact that mass media have not relented in exposing corrupt leaders by patterning with various anti graft agencies such as the EFCC, ICPC, CCT and the Nigerian Police. The study used survey method in carrying out this research with the use of questionnaire as a research tool. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency percentage and tables). The study find out that mass media have been a major instrument in waging war against corruption and corrupt practices in Nigeria. The media are performing significant roles in the anti corruption campaign. It is therefore, recommended that mass media should be objective in their coverage and reportage of corrupt matters without political or ethnic influence.
fight against corruption
Table of Contents
Title page i
Table of Content vi-vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Problem Statement 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 2
1.4 Research Questions 2
1.5 Significance the Study 3
1.6 Scope of the Study 3
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms 3
2.0 Literature Review 4
2.1 Mass Media 4
2.2 Meaning of Broadcasting 5
2.3 Historical Development of Broadcasting Media in Nigeria 5
2.4 Functions of Broadcasting Media 6
2.5 Corruption Defined 9
2.6 Corruption, Media and Development 9
2.7 The Concept of Newspaper 11
2.8 Characteristics of Newspaper 11
2.9 Functions of Newspaper 12
2.10 Role of the Press in Modern Society 13
2.11 Brief History of Economic and Financial Crime Commission 14
2.12 Mass Media as tool for Effective War Against Corruption 15
2.13 Impact of Mass Media in Reducing Corruption in Nigeria 16
2.14 History of Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) 21
2.15 Role of NTA in Spate of Corruption in Nigeria 21
2.16 Theoretical Framework 23
3.0 Research Method 26
3.1 Research Design 26
3.2 Study Population 26
3.3 Sample Size 26
3.4 Sampling Technique 26
3.5 Data Collection Instrument 27
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 27
3.7 Data Collection Instrument 27
3.8 Data Analysis Procedure 27
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis 28
4.1 Data Analysis 28
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 34
5.1 Summary 34
5.2 Conclusion 34
5.3 Recommendations 35
1.1 Background to the Study
Political corruption is a persistent phenomenon in Nigeria. President Muhammadu Buhari defined corruption as the greatest form of human right violation. Since the creation of modern public administration in the country, there have been cases of official misuse of funds and resources. The rise of public administration and the discovery of oil and natural gas are two major events seen to have led to the increase in corrupt practices in the country (Wikipedia, 2015).
The government has aimed at containing corruption through the enactment of laws and the enforcement of integrity systems, but success has been slow. As at 2012, Nigeria is estimated to have lost over $400 billion to corruption since independence M.Watts (2008:47) cited in Aderogba, A. (2013). affirms that “effects of corruption in the Nigerian society cannot be overemphasized”. Corruption is indeed a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian society. It is a monster that all and sundry blame for the economic woes facing the country. This is because corruption is seen as one of the major impediments to the economic development of the nation. It is perhaps, the only reason why nothing seems to be working. In fact, corruption is threatening the existence of Nigeria as an entity. Nearly every sphere of human endeavour is affected by corruption. And no profession is spared either.
Interestingly, successive governments pursued policies against corruption and it was the main reason why the military made incursions into politics. Despite various policies adopted by governments, corruption is ever increasing in the country. Nigeria is said to have generated huger revenue during this current political dispensation than at other times of her history. This is so because of the rising price of crude oil in the international market since 1999 (Aderogba, 2013).
Therefore, the destructive impact of corruption in the live of nations throughout the world is acknowledged. Corruption is perhaps the most important factor that is impeding the accelerated socio-economic and political transformation of developing or Less Developing Countries (LDCs) of the world. In fact, it is recognized by development scholars that the level of reduction in corruption has a very direct link to the level of economic development of nations in the world.
The media and Civil Society groups have been identified as the two very important weapons to fight the scourge of corruption worldwide. In Nigeria, the independent press, by which we refer to the newspapers and the newsmagazines, have been actively involved in checking the excesses of governments and as well as others in positions of authorities.
The most focused and far-reaching war against corruption in Nigeria could be said to have started during the regime of the erstwhile president of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo especially with the establishment ot the two Anti-graft bodies; The Independent Corrupt Practices and Related Offences Commission (ICPC) and the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC).
The establishment of the two bodies provided great impetus for the press to perform the constitutionally ordained role of effectively watching over the activities of the government so as to ensure efficient survive delivery. Despite the strident criticism that the war was biased and the agencies were being used to witch-hunt enemies of the government, the press still provided great support to the ant-graft agencies in its activities. The last sixteen years of democratic government show that corruption and corrupt related matters are among issues that are taken major reports and large sizeable percentage of spaces available in newspapers and news magazines.
Some of the top Corruption cases and scandals reported by the Media in Nigeria 2011-2015 are listed below according to Oluwole, I. (2015, March): N195 Billion Maina Pension Scam, Kerosene Subsidy Scam, $6bn Fuel Subsidy Scam, 123bn Naira Fraud – Stephen Oronsaye, Police Pension Fund Fraud, Stella Oduah car purchase scandal, NNPC missing $20billion naira, $15 million in Private Jet Arm Scandal, Abba Moro Immigration recruitment scandal, Crude Oil Theft Scandal, Arms scandal, Ekiti Gate, Ballot Papers, Pardon of Diepriye Alamieyesegha., Mohammed Abacha N446 Billion case, Farouk Lawan $3m bribery scandal., Diezanni Allison-Madueke Alleged Links with know front, Kola Aluko, N6Billion Bribe to Christian Religious Leaders, Nigeria’s Dasuki ‘arrested over $2bn arms fraud’ and False Asset declaration by Senate president. It is against this background that the research investigated the influence of mass media in the fight against corruption in Nigeria (A case study of Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Osogbo).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Since the inauguration of EFCC and ICPC as an anti graft agents by the ACT 2000. It has ever been saddled with the responsibility of preventing and fighting corruption. However, much have been heard about EFCC and ICPC but little has been reported about those that have been prosecuted since 2000 and suspects on their watch list on a regular basis.
Many also see EFCC and ICPC as tools in hand of ruling party to hand pick their opposition and to oppress. Similarly, little is known about various money and other recoveries made by the EFCC and ICPC therefore, this research intent to x-ray the role expected of mass media in reporting and disseminating the activities of EFCC and other anti graft agencies.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
i. To know whether NTA report bribery and corruption activities in Nigeria.
ii. To examine various NTA educative and enlightenment programme on the general public.
1.4 Research Questions
i. To what extent does NTA report bribery and corruption activities in Nigeria?
ii. Does NTA educates and enlighten the general public on the effect of corruption on the national development?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The research findings would benefit not only students but also the media practitioners on how they can use their media to fight corruption. It would also enable government on the need to give press enough freedom to perform their day to day activities.
The findings of this study would reveal some major corrupt cases that have greatly affected the Nigeria society. This work would enable students as well as scholars to improve upon their knowledge of corruption and anti-corruption practices unfolding in Nigeria.
This study would allow political science, sociology, anthropology, criminology, public administration and other social science students to excel in courses relating corrupt practices in Nigeria.
On the other hand, this project research would allow the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, Independent Corrupt Practises Corruption and other crime fighting institutions in Nigeria to know the perception of the populace of their activities as publicized by the media and as a result enable them improve upon their method of operation. The study would also add to previous knowledge/ information relating corruption and anti-corruption in Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research which investigated the influence of mass media in the fight against corruption in Nigeria was narrowed to NTA, Osogbo because the chapel is the assembly of all reporters and journalists in Osun state range from the print, broadcast and even then some professional bloggers since it might be difficult for the researcher to study mass media houses in Nigeria.
However, the demographic variables of the respondents were considered before the structuring and administration of the research instrument, such variables are institution, age, gender, academic level, religion and social background.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Influence: It is the impact and contribution of NTA towards curbing corruption.
Mass Media: This is represented by Nigerian Television Authority (NTA)
EFCC: Economic and Financial Crime Commission, It is one of the antigraft agencies.
ICPC: Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission, It is one of anti corruption agencies in Nigeria.
Activities: This is day to day effort against corruption by the EFCC and ICPC
Corruption: All forms of misappropriation usually money or property belong to the general public or entity.
Anti- Graft Agency: It is anti corruption agent such as ICPC and EFCC.
“INFLUENCE OF MASS MEDIA IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA”
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