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How to Write An Abstract

(Last Updated On: 15th March 2023)

How to Write An Abstract

          An abstract is one of the most important parts of a project or thesis, that is why this post focus on how to write an abstract and what should contained in a typical abstract. An abstract is a synopsis or summary of the entire research which gives the reader a clear and precise idea of what the study is all about I.e the purpose of the study. How it was carried out and what the findings were. This is done in about 250/300 words or one half pages of the work, whichever shorter. it depends on the requirement.

         Abstract is like a book preface. It gives a clue to what contains in a project or research. Beautifully written abstract tells everything about a project or research in a summary form. A comprehensive abstract reduces readers efforts before getting the gist of the entire study. However, a complete abstract should identity the topic of the research, main objective, theory or theories/ model (s), research method used, sampling technique employed to select sample size, instrument (s) used to collect data, method of analysis, major findings, conclusion/ recommendations. Just as the title of a research is important, so as the abstract. Mere looking at an abstract, one should know everything about the project or research paper.

What to Include in Your Abstract?

An abstract is a brief summary of a research paper, thesis, or article that helps readers quickly understand the purpose, methods, results, and conclusions of the work. Here are the key elements you should include in an abstract:

Main Objective/Purpose of the Study: Identify the research question or problem that your work addresses.

Theory (ies)/ Model Used: Identify the theory. Theories or model (s) used.

Method(s) Used: Briefly describe the method (s) you used to conduct your research or analysis.

Data Collection Instrument: Indicate your data collection instrument

Sample Size/Sampling Technique: Indicate the Sample Size and Sampling Technique adopted.

Indicate Your Major Finding/Results: Summarize the key findings of your work, including any significant results or conclusions.

Conclusions: Briefly state the implications of your findings and their potential impact on the field of study.

Recommendations: State at least a recommendation.

Remember that an abstract is a concise summary of your work, so be sure to prioritize the most important information and avoid unnecessary details or technical jargon. Aim to write a clear, engaging abstract that conveys the significance of your work and encourages readers to explore your research further.

Samples of an Abstract


The objective of this study was to investigate the attitude of university students towards online shopping with a reference to Jumia, Konga and Olx respectively. The study was anchored on Technological Determinism Theory. A survey research method was adopted while a questionnaire was used to elicit responses from students of Unilag, Akoka Lagos. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) with the aids of SPSS. Findings show that with advancement in technology particularly social networking and online stores, it has facilitated online shopping among the youth whereas, Lack of trust, absence of physical interaction and fear of being deceived and duped have been identified as some of the challenges facing online shopping all over the world especially in Africa and Nigeria in particular. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) with the aids of SPSS. It was recommended that Online payment for products and services such as money perfect, credit card, debit card, online signed cheque and others should be protected while many easier payment options should be designed to make the online payment easier, effective and fraudulent free.


The study investigated the influence of cooking shows in educating women in their food preparation with a focus on Maggi Star Kitchen, Bon Appetit and Olowosibi shows. The study was anchored on Source Credibility Theory and Uses and Gratifications Theory. A survey research method was adopted while questionnaire was used to elicit responses from respondents in Lagos. Respondents were selected through accidental sampling technique. The data were analysed in descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage). Findings show that majority of the respondents admitted that Maggi Star Kitchen has enhanced their cooking and food preparation. While many respondents submitted that they have learnt new approach to some food preparation via Maggi Star Kitchen, Bon Appetit and Olowosibi but the major challenge facing women in Lagos in translating what they watch in Maggi Star Kitchen, Bon Appetit and Olowosibi into their daily food preparation or menu was as a result of the level of income, hustle and bustle nature of the city, little or no access to some of ingredients used on the show within their localities etc. it was recommended that 24 hours private television station should be established to dwell only on cooking, food, menu and other related aspect alone rather than all-in-one channels we are having in Nigeria, good examples of such television stations are MasalaTV, ZaiqaTV, and ZaukTV. The Hum Network Limited (HNL) just like that of Pakistan because it is a human interest show.


The core objective of this research was to examine the Influence of News blogs on hardcopy bewspaper patronage among students. Reading from online blogs and social media is on the increase among students as technology is becoming more advanced to the extent that students can access news online using their smartphones, therefore, led to the sales of few copies of newspapers. The effect of online news blogs also led people to read the news as it breaks not necessarily waiting till another day to read from the newspaper. The survey research method was adopted for this study, the data were equally elicited from respondents using a questionnaire. Respondents were drawn as sample size using non-probability method (Accidental Sampling Technique.). The data were analysed using the frequency and percentage method. The study finds out that soon there may be fewer hard copies of newspapers in circulation as more readers now prefer online news. It was evident that a larger percentage of the respondents visit online for news regularly especially students who cannot do without surfing the net. The study, therefore, recommended that media organisations should be diversified in their production by converging new media (blog) which is invoke now in order to remain in the race and relevant.


The study investigated the perception of Nigerians on credibility and believability of social media advertisement with a focus on Facebook advertising among University of Lagos Students. The rationale for carrying out this study is on the observation that lots of companies and individuals are now promoting their brand online particularly through social media. Survey research method was used and questionnaire was also adopted to gather data from over 200 respondents that were drawn among UNILAG students using non-probability sampling method. Also, the data collected were analysed in frequency and percentage tables. Findings show that many of the respondents trust and patronise products and services shared on Facebook. They also admitted that they clicked on like, share, comment and view advert on social media very often. The challenges facing social media users in patronizing goods and services online were attributed to fear of been duped, poor browsing data and service to stay long on a social media and blogs. It was recommended that companies and individuals should watch over some sites that may be using their name or related to dupe people online. All effort should be developed to ensure that fraud is minimized to the barest minimum, so that people especially, the internet users can have a rest of mind to shop online and receive their products and services.



An abstract is a brief summary of a document or piece of writing. It provides a summary of the main points or ideas of the document, and it is usually presented at the beginning of the document or in a separate section. Abstracts are often used to give readers an overview of a document and help them decide whether or not they want to read the full document. They can be found in academic papers, research reports, and other types of documents. In some cases, abstracts are also published separately from the main document, in abstracting and indexing services or databases

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