Abstract: The study assessed the popularity and acceptability of Facebook advertising among students. The research was anchored on Technological Determinism Theory. A survey research method was adopted while a questionnaire was adopted for gathering data from respondents. Multistage sampling method both probability (simple random sampling) and non-probability (accidental) sampling technique was used to select respondents. The data collected were analyzed in frequency and percentage method. Findings show that the majority of the respondents were aware of buying and selling on Facebook and in other online platforms, though, few respondents buy or patronized products or services advertised on Facebook. It further that the major challenge hampering Facebook users to patronise products and services advertised among students are insecurity, lack of trust and high presence of online scammers whereas convenience, time-saving, unavailability of such products/services in their area. It was recommended that all efforts should be developed to ensure that fraud is minimized to the barest minimum, so that people especially, the internet users can have a rest of mind to shop online and receive their products and services.
1.1 Background to the Study
Almost all human activities on earth have been revolutionalised and witnessed a tremendous change from their conventional process due to advancements in technology in this twenty-first century. One of the human activities greatly influenced in this era is the mode of shopping, marketing, advertising and communication.
Electronic marketing is sometimes used interchangeably with woo-commerce, e-commerce, online marketing, online shopping, e-shopping, and internet marketing and it is the process of browsing and searching products information in a virtual online environment in order to provide sufficient information for a purchase decision, and then implement the purchase action (Mengli and Rui, n.d).
Nowadays, social media becomes part of a person’s life. Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube, LinkedIn and many more have millions of users and keep growing every day. It is estimated that over 500 million people are interacting with social media (Ostrow, 2010). The number of social media users growing has attracted marketers. Marketers have recognized social media marketing as an important part of their marketing communication strategies.
Also, social media helps organizations to communicate with their customers in bi-directional or interactive in nature. These interactions help marketers determine customers’ needs and understand what their market might look like. Key business factors of social media allow consumers to estimate products, make recommendations to contacts or friends, and share any of their purchases through their social media.
The influence of social media on buying behaviour can be in any service or product. Quality, brand, advertising or price could effect consumer decision-making. The relationship between social media and consumer decision-making presents that social media affects advertising attitudes, brand attitudes, and purchasing intentions of consumers. It will not necessarily affect consumers’ decision-making but might possess a mediating effect (Taining, 2012). In social media advertisements, either a website link is shared and if clicked, it will redirect one to the main website to buy or show interest in any product or service and transactions are done using access cards such as Debit cards, Credit Cards, Paypal among others.
Social media builds brand attitudes that affect buying behaviour. A good image of a brand or product can lead the consumer to make decisions on their purchases. When consumers’ friend on social media shares or recommends services or products on their social media, it affects brand attitude and influences their decision-making. Yet, advertising on social media, which is provided by commercial sources affects both consumer brand attitudes and purchasing intention (Yang, 2012). From that information, it helps marketers plan their marketing strategies. Many marketers use social media for marketing campaigns. It is an easy way to communicate with consumers; also it is inexpensive to advertise their brands or services.
Social media is not only for advertising, but it can also be a tool for brands or services to connect with their consumers. Another study shows that social media allows consumers and prospective consumers to communicate directly to a brand representative. Since most consumers are using social media as a tool to search and purchase items, brands or services use this advantage to advertise their products.
However, consumer motives for engaging in social media provide insights into consumers’ activities. Consumers have three main gratifications or motives for using the Internet as a medium, namely, information, entertainment, and social aspects (Heinonen, 2011). The motivation is in two main groups: rational motives, such as knowledge-sharing and advocacy, and emotional motives, such as social connection and self-expression (Krishnamurthy & Dou, 2008). Consumers’ activities in social media have been found based on consumers’ conduct online. Nowadays, consumers are using the Internet as their tools to achieve their motivations. Their motivation could be connected to their old friends, business, or reviews to support their decision-making. Reviews on social media become second-hand resources to support consumers’ decision-making because they want value from their Naira.
In the meantime, online shopping and marketing are considered to be risky because of the risk associated with it. Generally speaking, internet users avert online patronage because of credit-card fraud, lack of privacy, non-delivery risk, and lack of guarantee of the quality of goods and services.
Today in Nigeria, there are lots of e-shops that share sponsored advert messages on social media, particularly Facebook for serving millions of Nigerians online users who can trust online platforms as another alternative means of buying and selling, particularly among students of tertiary institutions who are versed in the operation of the computer, smartphone and knowledge of the internet. Among the popular online-store are Jumia, Konga, Olx, JIJI, Alibaba and Kaymu etc..
It is against this backdrop that the research assessing the popularity of Facebook advertisement among students and how the platform is been used for marketing, the level of attention and acceptance given to products and services been showcase on the platform.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Communication through social media has been found impact on consumer decision-making and marketing strategies. Consumer socialization theory predicts that communication among consumers affects their cognitive, affective, and behavioral attitudes (Ward, 1974). Also, the advertising on social media page has built new consumer’s behavior. Consumers tend to make purchases or conduct business on social media.
Recommendations by friends or connections on social media also could help consumers on decision-making. Those recommendations could help brand attitudes, purchasing attitudes, and advertising attitudes. The more good responses on the products or services, the more attractive for consumers purchasing. Most of top brands and services notice it and started to focus on social media marketing.
However, lack of trust, absent of physical interaction and fair of being deceived and duped have been attributed to some of the challenges facing advertising and marketing on the social media and internet in general across the globe especially in Africa and Nigeria in particular because it is relatively a new medium of communication.
It is against this backdrop that the research assessed the Popularity of Facebook Advertisement among students towards social media as a marketing medium with a focus on Facebook.com and how the platform is been used for marketing and the level of attention given to products and services been showcase on the platform.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To examine whether Osun State University students patronize products and services advertise via social media.
- To examine some of the factor (s) that encourage(s) online patronage among Osun State University students.
1.4 Research Questions
- Do Osun State University students patronize products and services advertised on social media and other online platform?
- What factor (s) encourages online patronage among Osun State University students?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The research is significant because is beneficial to business firm, school, government, individuals and researchers.
Company: Difference companies will find this research very interesting as it will keep them aware on the benefit of using social media when it comes into making products and services known to the world and how cheap it always be to use social media.
Researchers: People that will be carrying out research in relation to this will find the materials useful as it will provide them a clue to their own research.
Academic: It forms part of academic materials that students, lecturers, researchers, company can turn to when looking for solution to advertising on ICT, social media, GSM and other related aspect.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research assessing the popularity of Facebook advertisement among students was narrowed in scope to Osun State University students, Osogbo Campus. The institution was selected because of its proximity to the researcher as it was difficult if not impossible to study all students across tertiary institutions in Nigerian due to time available for this study, other considerable factors are geographical locations, age, sex and educational background of the respondents were considered before administration of questionnaire.
1.7 Operational Definition of the Terms
Assessing: It means evaluating the popularity of Facebook advertisement especially how students trust advertisements on Facebook.com and extent at which they shop products or use the services advertised on Facebook.
Popularity: It refers to how household and acceptance are Facebook advertisements.
Facebook Advertising: These are marketing or promotion of products and services over Facebook social media platform.
ASSESSING THE POPULARITY OF FACEBOOK ADVERTISING AMONG STUDENTS
Format = MS Word, Price = ₦4000, Chapter = 1-5, Pages = 52, References = Yes, Questionnaire =Yes, Table of Contents = Yes and Abstract = Yes