No.1 Mass Communication Project Topics and Materials


(Last Updated On: 9th January 2023)

ABSTRACT: The basic objective of the study was to investigate the impact of government ownership on journalists‘ performance. The assertion that says “he who pays the pipers dictates the tunes”, agreed more with this study because there are lots of government controls and influence on Nigerian journalists especially those working with the state media. Government dictates to journalists what they should and should not broadcast. It is believe the most of the government media journalists have been turned to their secretary and public relations while government has also turned media to her extension of ministry of information that can but support her activities dogmatically. The research was anchored on Agenda Setting Theory. A survey research method was adopted with the use of questionnaire to elicit the responses from the respondents. The analysis was based on frequency and percentage method. the study find out that media owned by government most of the time influence the performance of Journalists. It was recommended that irrespective of the media owner the journalists must be given free hand to perform their duty as watchdogs.

Table of Contents


Title                                                                                                            i        

Certification                                                                                                          ii

Dedication                                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                       iv

Table of contents                                                                                         v-vi

Abstract                                                                                                      vii

Chapter One

1.0     Introduction                                                                                      1

1.1     Background to the Study                                                                  1

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                                                  2

1.3     Purpose of the Study                                                                         2

1.4     Research Questions                                                                         3

1.5     Significance of the Study                                                                   3

1.6     Scope of the Study                                                                            3

1.7     Limitation of the Study                                                                     4

1.8     Definition of Terms                                                                            4

Chapter Two

2.0     Literature Review                                                                              5       

2.1     Meaning of Broadcasting Media                                                        5

2.2     Historical Development of Broadcasting Media in Nigeria                 6-7

2.3     National Broadcasting Commission and State Media License           7-8

2.4     Historical Background of Broadcasting Service of Ekiti State           8-9

2.5     The Functions of electronic media                                                     10

2.6     Other Role of Broadcasting Media in Nigeria                                    11-12

2.7     The Government                                                                                12-13

2.8     Ownership Influence on Government-Owned Broadcast Media        

          Performance                                                                                      13-14

2.9     Government and Control                                                                   14

2.10   Government and Financial Control                                                   14

2.11   Government and Commercial Drive                                                  15

2.12   Government and Appointment Of Principal  Media Staffs                 16

2.13   Theoretical Framework                                                                     16-19

Chapter Three

3.0     Research Methodology                                                                      20

3.1     Restatement of the Research Questions                                            20

3.2     Research Design                                                                                20

3.3     Study Population                                                                              21

3.4     Sample Size                                                                                       21

3.5     Sampling Design and Procedure                                                       21

3.6     Data Collection Instrument                                                               21

3.7     Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument                                22

3.8     Data Collection Procedure                                                                 22

3.9     Data Analysis                                                                                    22

Chapter Four

4.0     Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings                                       23

4.1     Data Analysis                                                                                   23-28

Chapter Five

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                                  29

5.1     Summary                                                                                          29

5.2     Conclusion                                                                                        30

5.3     Recommendations                                                                             30-31





1.1   Background to the Study

          Control of the electronic media is both internal and external, since there is nucleus of interdependence and co-existence. There is a common saying with regards to mass media control in Nigeria and else where, which has become a cliché, that “He who pays the piper dictates the tune”.  This means that the owners of a mass media channel controls what the medium broadcasts and how it broadcasts it.

          Surely, control through ownership is a fact of life in every society, but then the nature of this control usually varies greatly, depending upon the public system, the orientation of political leaders in control of government, the political climates prevailing, the caliber of journalists and other professional communicators.  It may also be dependent on the economic situation of the mass media and their stated objectives and policies.  There is also the legal control which sometimes goes beyond the ethical to include the right for an organization to be sued, if it broadcast without permission or transmit false information etc. (Onabanjo 2001).

          Government‘s truculent reaction to the freedom of the press in recording the affairs of the government to the public shows that the government always has a skeleton in its cupboard and ,therefore, would never entertain the prolonged glimpse of the press. The aim of the government to lord over the press is not peculiar to Nigeria alone, but to all the third world countries alone. According to Ekweli (2016),”throughout the centuries, and in every country, the media has been subjected to both harassment and manipulation”.

          From the colonial era to Nigeria’s independent and also from military to the civilian regime, the press has struggled to exist amidst diverse suppressive laws, ordinances, acts and decrees enacted and promulgated at one time or another by different government. Today, the Nigeria press exists in a very tenuous position. In the world of Exe (2013),”the jeremiad of complaint by the press has fallen on deaf ears of government who’s alert and watchful eyes are permanently directed on what the press published with eager hands to send some medial operations.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The aim of this project is to identify problems which broadcast medium (radio and television) encountered in the day to day activities especially stations media in owned by government.

          It will also highlight the problem the media is facing in gathering information and disseminating it to the public. The study is also intended to know the harsh treatment media practitioners are facing. Also, to study the limitations of journalist and the extent at which government information are available for journalists.

1.3    Objectives of the Study

i.    To examine the extent to which journalists in government-owned media are given free hands to operate professionally.

ii.   To ascertain whether the news of opposition parties are being heard on BSES.

iii.  To determine the extent to which BSES is objective in reporting news about state government.

1.4    Research Questions

i.    To what extent are journalists in government owned media are given free hands to operate professionally?

ii.   To what extent does the news of opposition parties are being heard on BSES?

iii.  To what extent is BSES objective in reporting news about state government?

1.5    Significance of the Study

          Based on the terrain in which media practitioners operate under control of government, this highly instructive work is aimed to enlighten mass media students and generality of the citizen to gain secondary knowledge of how journalists were harassed, intimidated, detained, brutalized and victimized not only under military dictates but also democratic rulers with the assertion that, “he who pays the paper dictates the tunes”.

          The study will help to provide adequate insight to meet the changing demands in the dynamic media environment of our society hereby helping media managers to make better management politics.

          The study will assist the media practitioners to know its role in enhancing the success or failure of  media industries.

          Other beneficial of the study are media owners who will know how their action and reaction is crippling the success and public credibility of their media outfit.

          Future researchers will find this work very interesting to use as a reference material for their new work and see what previous researchers have done.

          Government agencies that are saddled with the responsibility to ensure fairness and media consistency will also see the need to come up will new laws that will reduce ownership influence especially in this democratic era so that the public will come to trust such medium.  

1.6    Scope of the Study

         The study which examines the impact of government ownership on journalists‘ performance was narrowed in scope to journalists in Broadcasting Service of Ekiti State since it is difficult to reach all mass media in Nigeria. However, this cannot be effectively examined without considering the demographic factor of the staffs and sample number of media house under study who will in turn respond to the questionnaires of this study. Experience, educational background, professional training, age, sex e. t. c must also be considered before the distribution of research instrument.

          The research has been narrowed down to BSES because it is difficult to study all broadcast media in Nigeria due to the vest nature of the country, lack of enough time for this study, limited resources and other reasonable logistics worthy to note. Therefore the project will centre on BSES, Ekiti state.

1.7   Operational Definitions of the Terms

BROADCAST MEDIA: They are very potent mass media which combine audio, visual and motion in translation of news and programmes such as broadcasting services of Ekiti state (BSES).

GOVERNMENT: Is a body with the power to direct or control the public affairs of a country. It refers to institution or agent of a state responsible for ruling the country.

CONTROL: The power to direct and influence the decision on what mass media are to broadcast and which should not be broadcast.


WHAT TO EXPECT: (Format: MS WORD, Chapter 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Questionnaire and References)

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