ABSTRACT: The study examined the impact of newspaper advertisements on an organization using Unilever Plc, Apapa Lagos as a case study. Newspaper advertisement is very unique because is a permanent medium of communication and readers from all works of life who come across the newspaper can be opportune to see the advertisement message(s). The researcher adopted a survey research method to elicit data from the selected respondents who were drawn using the non-probability method. Data were collected via questionnaire while it was also analyzed and interpreted using simple statistic method (frequency and percentage) with tables. Unilever Plc. should adopt the attitude of determining the areas strengths and weaknesses of competitors whole exploring newspaper advertising programmers.
1.1 Background to the Study.
Modern advertising began in the late 19th century and grew during the early 20th century, as magazine and radio became mass advertising media. However, communication has been a part of the selling process ever since the exchange of goods between people started. The development of technology and research had led to increased sophistication in advertising in the recent decade.
Many attempts were made in the past to formulate a definition of advertising, one of such attempts led by the American Marketing Associations (AMA 1977) Cited in Suleiman (2004) says. Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of goods, services, or ideas by identified sponsors.
According to Dominick (2002), Advertising is any paid form of non-personal, presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, services usually paid for by an identified sponsor.
From the foregoing certain words of elaboration, advertising is “non personal” it is directed towards a large group of anonymous people, even direct mail advertising, which may be addressed to specific person, is prepared by a computer and signed by a machine.
Secondly, advertising is typically “paid for”. This fact differentiates advertising from publicity, which is not usually purchased. Sponsors such as Unilever Plc pay for the time and space they use to get their message across. Non-profit organizations, such as the Red Cross, advertise but do not pay for time-space.
Newspapers run these adverts free as public services. Thirdly for obvious reasons, the sponsor of the advert in the primary is what is behind the advert otherwise, why advertising? Perhaps the only situation, in which the identification of the advertiser may not be self-evident, is political advertising. Because of this, publishers will not accept a political advert without a statement identifying those responsible for it.
Newspaper Advertising in Nigeria can be traced to the growth of commercial activities even before the arrival of the white man. The methods of advertising prior to the arrival of the whites according to Ogbodoh (1990) cited in Okunna (2002) were town crier harking and display. Ekwelie (198) says before the emergence of cities, villages and little neighborhoods had ways of advertising waves.
In communities children would sing recognizable songs to announce the availability of goods when in cities, today, and one can still hear the mating song of pap sellers. The view that traders were satisfied with the spreading of their waves on the ground waiting for customers to make their first advance is entirely misleading.
Traders called the attention of prospective customers to the excellent quality and quantity of their goods and sometimes coined slogan to give added effect to their usual exaggerated claims.
However, Modern day Newspaper advertising began in 1859, while the commercial advertising started in 1928 when West African publicity (WAP) and the fore runner of lint as were established by United African Company (UAC). In 1859, the English Reverend gentleman Henry Townsend established the first Newspaper in Nigeria called Iwe Iroyin fun Egba ati Yoruba.
Though the Newspaper was mainly for ecclesiological matter, it carried advertisement on birth, weddings, death, church activities and vacancies for house boy and maid ship schedules and other social events. Iwe Irohin blazed the trail in Newspaper advertisement and established, Newspaper such as Anglo African, The Lagos Observer, The Eagle, The Lagos Weekly Record, the Critic and Mirrow e.t.c. In the Lagos colony and after 1914 when the amalgamation had taken place.
Advertising business received a boost as from 1920s when business activities in Lagos and its environs peaked. Many foreign companies such as Lever Brothers, Raleigh Bicycle, Dunlop, PZ, NACCET, Cadbury, Good year Tyres, Ovaltine, Nugget, Samsam shout Guinness, and Schnapps established bases in Lagos.
The West African publicity provided advertising services to these companies through the “three ps”- poster, press and pamphlet. Meanwhile, Unilever Nigeria Plc was incorporated as Lever brothers (West Africa) Ltd on 11th April 1923 by Lord Lever Hume, but the company’s antecedents have to be traced back to his excising trading interests in Nigeria and West Africa generally, and to the fact that it had since 19 century been greatly involved with the soap business in Britain. And is today one of the oldest surviving manufacturing company in Nigeria. After series of meager/ acquisitions, the company diversified into manufacturing and marketing of foods, non- soapy detergents and personal care products. These mergers/ acquisitions brought in Lipton Nigeria Ltd in 1985; chess brought ponds industries Ltd in 1988. The company changed its name to Unilever Nigeria Plc in 2001.
Unilever Nigeria Plc is a public liability company quested on the Nigerians stock Exchange since 1973 with Nigerians currently having 49 % of equity holdings. The organizations also carry out advertising campaigns nationwide and they do this through the Newspapers. Advertising is very essential for the development of Unilever Plc, it is vital to the extent that they cannot survive without it. The main purpose of the organization is to get the market to satisfy the needs of the people in return, for profit (unilever, n d).
The companies advertise a particular product from its introductory stage, at its maturity stage sometimes depending on the season as the demand for some products is seasonal. The money spent on Advertisement by Unilever Plc does not affect them negatively, in the scene that when they advertise they create awareness in the minds of the people as a result of this they widen their market share, what they gain out weight what they spend.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The research examines the impact of advertisement in an organization using Unilever Plc, Apapa Lagos as a reference point as most studies focused on television and billboard.
1.3 Research Questions
- To what extent does newspaper advertisement of Unilever products influence buying habit of consumers?
- Do consumers recall Unilever products advertising messages in newspapers than in other media?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
- To ascertain the extent which newspaper advertisement of Unilever products has influenced buying habits of consumers.
- To determine whether consumers recall Unilever products advertising messages in newspapers than in other media.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Considering the vital role played by newspaper advertising not only in the promotion of sales but also in creating brand loyalty.
This study which is based on analyzing the impact of newspaper advert in an organization development will go a long way in bringing new grounds in the world of advertisement.
The research is significant to the body of the knowledge and the society at large. It will form part of academic materials that students, lecturers, researchers, the company can turn to when looking for solutions to advertising in newspapers and other media like ICT, social media, GSM, and other related aspects.
Therefore, this research would be of great significance to the researchers and students who may what to carry out research in the area related to this. i.e people that will be carrying out research in relation to this will find the materials useful as it will provide them a clue to their own research.
The study will be beneficial to small, medium, and big organizations and owners of the business. Difference companies will find this research very interesting as it will keep them aware of the benefit of newspaper advert when it comes to making products and services known to the world.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study has been limited in scope to the impact of newspaper advertisements on organizations. The study was narrowed to Unilever plc Lagos. The demographic factors of the staff and consumers of the company will be examined before structuring and administration of the questionnaire. Such factors include age, sex, academic level, e.t.c