ABSTRACT: The research examines the impact of public relations in the actualization of an organization’s goals with a specific focus on the Nigeria Brewery, Ibadan. It has been established in this research work that the role of public relations practice in any organization cannot be easily fathomed. The research work was justified on the framework of Systems Theory and Situational Theory. The study used a survey research method while a questionnaire was used to collect data from 154 respondents that were purposively selected from the Nigeria Breweries Plc out of which 142 copies that were correctly filled were analyzed in frequency and percentage method. Findings show that public relations unit or department of the Nigeria Brewery has extensively contributed to the development and profitability of Nigeria Brewery, Ibadan to a high extent through adequate feedback and platform to manage the complaints of customers. Also, Social media, broadcast media, print and press conferences are the major tools and media often used by the PR unit. The study recommended that management should ensure that they make use of social media and other new media to effectively disseminate, interact and solve problems while public relations unit should be more creative and innovative in designing new approaches to solving every challenge and device new tactics that can facilitate better productivity.
1.1 Background to the Study
It is observed that the aim of any business organisation is to achieve growth, increase in turnover, assets and profit, but all of these are depending on the goodwill and public perception of the organisation and its products or services. Goodwill is secured not so much as a result of the organization’s mere existence but as the sustained strategic planning, execution and evaluation of the perception of their publics in relation to the organization.
No matter how small or big a company is; it needs the service (s) of public relations. Apart from profit-making organizations, non-commercial organization and individual(s) can use public relations so far it deals with people (big or small) one way or the other such require the use of public relations to build, maintain and sustain its reputation in the public domain and to enhance good image and understanding among bodies that it deals with.
Therefore, public relations is an all-embracing concept that pervades the entire management process of today’s commercial and non-commercial organizations or institutions. It is largely a social philosophical and practical concept based on the premise that people matter and that for environment of the modern society it must be seen as adequately addressing itself to the peculiar needs and interests of all with whom it deals. According to British Institute of Public Relations (BIPR) cited in Arowosegbe (2005:1) defines public relations as the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its publics.
Public relations is an effort that deliberate or intentional not retroactive neither is it as fire bridge exercise sustained. The aim of the effort is to establish and maintain mutual understanding. It involves two ways of communication system and effect so that an organization may understand the public and the public(s) also understand the company. It implies a kind of social responsibility on the part of an organization making it to deliberate and continuously undertakes course of action that are in its public best interest.
Going by the view of Sam Black, a Professor of Public Relations and Former President of the International Public Relations Associations on what should be the definition of public relations, cited in Ewuola (2005) he posit that “ public relations is the establishment of two way communication to resolve conflicts of interests by seeking common grounds or areas of mutual interest and the establishment of understanding based on truth, knowledge and full information”. A popular adage will say, “a good name is better than silver and diamond” i.e if one or an organisation has good reputation and integrity such could be entrusted for many good things which could in turn make such organisation better or leave successfully. To business firm, good name is a soft selling no wonder some people pay heavily to buy franchise of another company because of the existing reputation.
Thus, pubic relations through its various activities such as effective communication, promotion of understanding, crisis prevention and management, social responsibility, media relations, community relations, opinions generation and brand promotion ensure corporate image or reputation because the manner in which a company, its activities, and its products or services is perceived by outsiders matters to the success.
Meanwhile, Nigeria Breweries Plc was incorporated first as Nigeria Breweries Limited on 6th November, 1946 and later as Nigeria Breweries Limited on the commencement of operation in a second brewery at Aba in 1954. In accordance with the companies and allied matter act of 1990, the name was again changed to Nigerian Breweries Plc. The company grows from its modest beginning into a great company. It is against this background that the study examine the impact of public relations in actualising organisational objectives with a view to know the extent which the Nigeria Brewery Ibadan as actually utilise the public relations in achieving their goals.
1.2 Problems Statement
Public relations in many companies attracted less attention and budget unlike advertisement campaign and advert department despite the huge role playing. The research further observe that management in company such as Nigeria Brewery neither recognises nor appreciate public relations efforts in building and projecting corporate image and good reputation because they don’t want to spend money on public relations activities like advertising campaign believing that it brings little impact of company. It is against this backdrop that the research is gear towards examine the impact of public relations in actualisation of organisation objectives with a specific focus on the Nigerian Brewery, Ibadan.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To examine some of the core objectives of the Nigerian Brewery Ibadan.
- To find out the extent at which public relations unit/department has held Nigerian Brewery in the actualisation of its objectives.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the core objectives of the Nigerian Brewery Ibadan?
- To what extent has public relations unit/department contributed to the actualization of Nigerian Brewery objectives?
1.5 Scope of the study
The scope of study focuses on the impact of public relations in the actualization of an organization’s objectives and has been limited to the Nigeria Brewery Plc, Ibadan because studying all manufacturing companies in Nigeria will be too difficult.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
The following factors limited the study “the impact of public relations in the actualization an organisation’s objectives” to the Nigerian Brewery Ibadan. Other factors limiting this study are:
Financial Constraints: Lack by the researcher to travel to many organization for the collection of data needed for this research work made the researcher to limit the study to the Nigerian Brewery Ibadan.
Duration/Time Factor: The duration for this research is relatively short. There is no enough time to carry our proper research for information gathering on the research work.
Insufficient Material: Another limitation to this study is the inadequate material. Little materials are available to carry out the research which is a constraint to this study.
Proximity to Researcher: The nearest of the case study to the researcher is also one of the factors that limited this work to Nigeria Brewery Ibadan. The distance of the case study which is Nigeria Brewery to the researcher is confortable and short.
Stress: Stress emanated from other academic activities is also a constraint to the study. It contributed to the factors that limited the study to Nigeria Brewery Ibadan.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study of this nature will be beneficial to so many categories on people, individuals, corporate bodies among other.
Different organizations will know the benefits of public relations through the result of the findings and how they can use PR for their gain.
Public relations students and mass communication students will as well understand the importance of their course of study to the industrial development.
The researcher may after some recommendations that will help to ensure an adequate and effective use of public relations as a tool for business promotions.
Moreover, this work will also serve as a working tool for Chief Executives and managers in the manufacturing sectors; this piece of work will actually form a basis for further development and as well contribute to the existing knowledge in the area of product marketing. Future researchers who will be researching into the area related to this topic will find this work relevant as reference material.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Impact: This refers to the contributions or influence of PRs towards actualising Nigeria Brewery objectives.
Public Relations: This is the department or unit of Nigeria Brewery Plc that is saddled with the responsibility of maintaining mutual understanding between management, staff and publics and enhancing good corporate image in such a way to actualise the organisational goals.
Actualization: This refers to the means by which Nigeria Brewery Plc realised and achieved her objectives through PRs.
Organisation’s Objectives: This is Nigerian Brewery goals for setting up the company that need PRs to achieve.
Nigerian Breweries Plc: Nigerian Breweries Plc, is the pioneer and largest brewing company in Nigeria. It serves the Nigerian market and exports to other parts of West Africa. Incorporated in 1946, its first bottle of beer, STAR Lager, rolled off the bottling lines of its Lagos brewery in June 1949. Other breweries were subsequently commissioned by the company, including Aba Brewery in 1957, Kaduna Brewery in 1963, and Ibadan Brewery in 1982. Ibadan Brewery is located at Km 12, New Ife Road, Ajoda New Town, Ibadan.