ABSTRACT: The study appraises gender inequality in the practice of journalism with a particular focus on Nigeria Union of Journalists, Osun State Chapter. Journalism is considered as an exclusive preserve of men with salutation of ‘Gentlemen of the Press’ an indication of gender discrimination or men profession. The study was anchored on Mute theory and System Management Theory. A survey research method was used while 200 copies of questionnaires were administered to respondents who were journalists that were purposively selected at the NUJ Press Centre Osogbo out of which 180 copies were retrieved and analysed using frequency and percentage distribution method. Findings show that women journalists are performing like their male counterparts in all aspects of journalism. Women’s role as mother alongside religion, political atmosphere are some of challenges limiting the potentials of women mostly Nigeria. The study recommended that the media employers should ensure gender equality while recruiting for media establishment, also, female lecturers and technologists should be employ in higher institutions where course related to journalism, mass communication and so are offered.
Table of Contents
Title page i
Table of contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 2
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Significance of the Study 5
1.6 Scope of the Study 5
1.7 Limitation to the Study. 6
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 6
2.0 Literature Review 7
2.1 Meaning of Journalism 7
2.2 Historical Development of the Press in Nigeria 8
2.3 Forms of Journalism 11
2.4 Evolution and Growth of Broadcasting Media in Nigeria 11
2.5 Departments in Television and Radio Station 13
2.6 Function of Broadcast Media 14
2.7 Female Attitude Towards Journalism 14
2.8 Discrimination Against Women Journalists 15
2.9 Impressions About Female Journalists 17
2.10 Gender, Religion, Culture and other Challenges facing women Journalists 18
2.11 Detention, intimidation and killing of women journalists 18
2.12 Contributions of Women Journalists 21
2.13 Anchor of Women Programmes 21
2.14 Theoretical Framework 24
3.0 Research Methodology 25
3.1 Research Design 25
3.2 Restatement of Research Questions 25
3.3 Population of the Study 25
3.4 Sample Size 26
3.5 Sampling Technique 26
3.6 Data Collection Instrument 25
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Study Instrument 26
3.8 Administration of Data Collection Instrument 26
3.10 Data Analysis Method 27
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis 28
4.1 Data Analysis 28
4.2 Discussion of Finding 29
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 35
5.1 Summary 35
5.2 Conclusion 36
5.3 Recommendations 37
1.1 Background to the Study
Gender is a general term that refers to girls, boys, women and men. Gender can also be defined to include the roles of males and females in the society. Also, gender is the classification into a man or a woman. According to the previous researches in the media, Global Media Monitoring Project GMMP (2000, 2005) indicates that “the media are male dominated in terms of subject matter, news, and people who report news, prominence of male and female newsmakers and reporters”. Even those who are female are not at the decision making level of the media but majorly as presenters, newscasters, and reporters and so on.
Gender relations in Nigeria are characterized by a lot of imbalance to the disadvantage of women of which tradition, culture, religion, and other factors have continued to widen the disparity between Nigerian men and women, by keeping women in subordinate positions. Mute Theory and Gendialect Theory also attested to imbalance in men and women relation.
The relevance of the gender question surfaces in concerns expressed by international bodies like UNESCO and non – Governmental Organization in and outside Nigeria, for instance, in its second medium term plan for the women’s decade (1976-1985) proposed among other things programmes devoted specially to the advancement in women’s roles in the society in the form of gender equality in the work place which the media is inclusive. Also, the campaigns covers the contribution of the media to promoting equality between men and women which aiming at strengthening women’s access to and participation in communication.
The media in all its power ought to serve as agent that should continue to propagate positive images of women through society, but the images media present about women sometimes help to cement the stereotype of women as victims, defenseless groups of physical objects as seen in beauty pageants, and advertising and as sex objects. Thus, this policy of exclusiveness and aggrandizement coupled with the inability to bring about sustainable change and move away from the status quo continue to push women issues to the back of the burner.
In Nigeria, domestic roles tend to bring about confinements, limitations, and restrictions on women as men find it difficult to relinquish their grip on the seat of power, resulting in a male-dominated media industry. “gentlemen of the press” slogan shows that the practice of journalism is strictly a men affairs as if women were not involved.
Nigerian women continue to be left out of the media industry as they trail their male counterparts who dominated the journalism profession in large numbers. Men are seen in key decision making positions that continue to relegate women to the back of the burner. This lack of representation by females in key positions continue to contribute to the shortage of women voices in the media and, as such, less emphasis is dedicated to women issues. There is negative impression in society and in public offices for women to hold key decision making positions is not exception to the media outfits. Also, threats and violence against women in the media particular women are on the rise in many regions of the world and that is why to some extent journalism can be a very dangerous job, in particular for reporters who expose injustices in hostile, corrupt and violent environments and in war zones. In addition, to the different forms of violence against journalists, threats, murder, confiscation of material, deportation, arrests and intimidation.
Daramola, Johnson, and Oladeinde (2013) cited in (Ikem, 1996) posit that ‘journalism started as an exclusive preserve of men with salutation phrase of ‘Gentlemen of the press’ an indication of gender discrimination or exclusion. According to her, women’s active involvement in journalism started with the establishment of West Africa Pilot in 1937 by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, This era marked the foray of women into journalism in Nigeria, with a column ‘Milady’s Bower’ carrying comments and pictures on women.
According to her, women involvement in editorial management was achieved for the first time when Adora Lilly Ulasi and later Theresa Ogunbiyi were appointed by the Sunday Times to edit a page and column devoted to women. She said the years 1950 – 1975 witnessed a proliferation of women in journalism in Nigeria.
Olatunji Dare (1986), Ikem (1996: 190) said Ronke Ajayi was credited to be the first woman to serve as an editor and publisher of Daily Herald in 1931 – 1932. The year 1980, marked the beginning of the golden era of women in journalism in Nigeria, when Dr. (Mrs.) Doyin Abiola (nee Aboaba) was appointed as the first editor of a National Newspaper, National Concord. From then on, women have made in-road into not only management (Lizzy Ikem, Modupe Ajayi, Rose Umoren, Nkechi Nwankwo, Hajia Bilikisu…) and publishing of titles (May Eller Ezekiel – Classique Magazine and Chris Anyanwu – TSM, see Ikern, 199£ p!93.).
It is against this background that the research appraises Gender Inequality in the Practice if Journalism with a focus on Osun Nigeria Union of Journalist (NUJ) with a view to know the extent at which women are assign with key and decision making role, how much recognition given to women in the media coverage and as employees.
1.2 Problem Statement
Despite the fact that there is considerably good number of trained female journalists, very few of them are working with media houses in Nigeria. The media hegemony continue to dominate the media establishment as men maintain their dominance and assert their control on the industry, thus creating an atmosphere of total dominance of the profession and continue to set ‘limits and the extent’ to which women are involved in the decision making process. Critics argues that women are to control the family unit and manage, specialized and maintain their households, rearing children and emotionally supporting their respective husbands.
Other limitations include but not limited to culture, religion among others because in many culture and religion women are not expected to make decision or preside affair where men available, this has continued to be marginalized in the media as well as in media decision-making even in a profession that prides itself in gender equality.
It is against this background that the research appraises gender inequality in the practice of journalism, particularly among Nigeria Union of Journalist (NUJ) in Osun state with a view to know the extent at which women/female are involved in the business of news gathering and decision relating to the general development of media sector.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To examine whether media houses favour male journalists than women journalists.
- To examine whether women journalists are competing favourably well with male journalists in the field.
- To analyze the major challenges facing women journalists in performing effectively.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent do media houses favour male journalists than women journalists?
- To what extent are women journalists competing with male journalists in the field?
- What are the major challenges facing women journalists in performing better?
1.5 Significance of the Study
- The significant of this study aims at revealing to the media practitioners and mass communication students on gender inequality in the practice of journalism.
- Also, the research work will try to provide satisfactory answers to some questions that are disturbing the mind of public formulators, students of journalism, Nigeria women and other researchers into topics relating to women in Nigeria.
- Researchers will be exposed to know that journalism is the work collecting and writing news stories for newspapers, magazines, radio and television. Researchers who will be writing on this aspect or related one will fine this word very interesting and serve as reference materials.
- Moreover, journalists and media outfits will benefit from this research work because they will be able to identify the problem of the women when it comes to journalism or media coverage in Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research which set to appraises gender inequality in the practice if journalism has been narrowed in scope to Nigeria Union Journalist (NUJ),Osun State. NUJ is selected because it affords the researcher oppourtunity to meet as many journalists as possible from print to the broadcast, from young to the experience ones, from male to female. Another rationale for selecting Osun state NUJ is due to inadequate fund to travel to many media outfits or many states to collect data.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Appraisal: It refers to the critical examination of how equal are women in the business of media operations.
Gender Inequality: This refers to the unequal treatment of women journalists with their men counterpart in broadcast media in Nigeria
Practice of Journalism: This is how journalism profession is being practice in Nigeria especially as related to women in the profession.
Women Journalists: These are mature female choosing journalism as a career that works as reporters, newscasters, presenters and so on.
Journalism: This is the business of collecting, writing and publishing of news stories and other related materials in newspaper, radio and television to inform the general public on things happening in the world.
NUJ: This is the acronym of the Nigerian Union of Journalists, it is an umbrella association of practicing journalists in Nigeria.