ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the broadcast media in curbing Ebola Virus in Nigeria and particularly in Lagos and other cities. It was established that one of the means used to contained Ebola Virus when it first reported in Nigeria was through communication particularly broadcast media through various sensitization and enlightenment programmes and news, this helps to debunk rumour and superstition attached to the virus. Survey research method was adopted in which 100 copies of questionnaires were administered and 90 were returned. Respondents were drawn using non-probability technique. Also, the data were analysed and interpreted using table, frequency and percentage method. Respondents submitted that progrmammes on radio, television and in a normal movies helped to curb Ebola Virus spread in Nigeria and Lagos state in particular where the disease first broke out. It was recommended that media planners should always have at the back of their minds that Nigeria national development should be foremost on their minds when they are writing any script while health drama, programme should be structured in such as way that will be easy to understand and achieve its set objectives.
Keywords: Ebola Virus
Table of contents
Table of contents
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of the Terms
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Meaning of Mass Media
2.2 Forms of Mass Media
2.3 Meaning of Broadcasting Media
2.4 Various Television Programme
2.5 Concept of Drama/Movies
2.6 Function of Drama
2.7 History of Drama in Nigeria
2.8 Origin of Ebola
2.9 Strategies to Control Ebola Disease
2.10 The Impact of Drama in Controlling and Preventing Ebola
2.11 Attitude of Nigerians Towards Ebola Drama
2.12 Theoretical Framework
3.1 Research Methodology
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample Size
3.5 Sampling Technique
3.6 Data Collection Instrument
3.7 Data Collection Process
3.8 Data Analysis
Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings
4.1 Data Analysis
4.2 Answer to Research Questions
4.3 Discussion of the Findings
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
Ebola virus found its way into Nigeria by American-Liberian Mr. Patrick Sawyer who came from Liberia and dead with the virus in Nigeria. Sympathizers and health workers who came in contact with him suffered from the virus (Abraham, 2014).
It should be recorded that majority of Nigerians knew nothing about Ebola virus or diseases until it was reported in the media that Patrick Sawyer has imported the virus to the country and couple of seconds that the news broke out it became issue of discuss on both traditional mass media, social media and blogs among Nigerians especially the ways it being contacted and believe of been very dangerous and deadly more than HIV/Virus has continued to create panic and fear among the citizens.
NTA, AIT, Channels led other mass media where Ebola virus and other associated issues were discussed. Although, many information at the earlier report when the virus just broke out were based on the speculations, propaganda and half information as most of the sources used were not credible enough until few days later when experts came to debunk and shed light on what Ebola virus is, how it can be contacted, how to prevent it, and treatment for Ebola victims.
According to Paul (2014) observes that education and awareness is a cornerstone of stopping this epidemic. Spreading critical health messages has been extremely challenging in an environment with low health literacy and limited trust in public officials. We must support public health officials and responders in deploying the communications and key health facts that will help to save lives and curb the spread of the epidemic.
So far, efforts in responding to the crisis have been seriously impeded by rumors, allegations of politicization and poor public understanding around Ebola prevention and care. Better, localized education and awareness efforts are needed so that anyone who is at risk of infection knows how to stay safe and help others do so as well. Mass media and communications have a critical role to play in the containment of the crisis.
Osarumwense (2014) added that Handshake has become difficult to come by, hugs suddenly became scared commodities and relationships have begin to suffer as a result of the fear of Ebola. Though only fourteen cases of the virus have been reported in Lagos, the whole nation has been gripping with fear of the virus. People no longer give a friendly handshake to stranger, colleagues even friends and family relatives. Though this be seen as precautionary moves, it is clear that the under laying factor is fear. Fear for friends and strangers, fear for the society and most of all, fear for Ebola.
However, Ebola disease also called Ebola hemorrhagic fever or Ebola fever is a rare and often fatal illness that humans and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys and gorillas) can contract. There have been several outbreaks of Ebola fever in Africa. There has never been a reported case of Ebola fever in people in the United States.
The Ebola virus causes Ebola fever. The virus is found in Africa and the Philippines but, the virus from the Philippines does not cause illness in humans. The virus was named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it was first discovered.
The Ebola virus was discovered in 1976 and has appeared in sporadic outbreaks since then. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there have been 2,265 reported cases of Ebola fever in humans around the world since 1976. Of these, 1,531 resulted in death (CDC, 2012). Various techniques and strategies were adopted to curb the spreading of the deadly disease such as dramatic approach, musical approach, house to house campaign, media report among others.
Because according to the UNIESCO, (2014) the provision of clear and reliable information is essential for a better understanding of the disease at the community level and as a bulwark for more effective prevention. The UNESCO project seeks to bolster the efforts of the Governments of Sierra Leone and Liberia to prevent the spread of the disease, through the dissemination of information about risk factors, methods of prevention and approaches for safe intervention. The focus is on community radio stations in Sierra Leone and Liberia to promote regular sensitization programmes, working with the Ministries of Health, presented in an interactive manner, in both English and in local languages.
Information, Education and Communication materials will be developed (flyers, posters, banners, T-shirts, brochures) and distributed to community centres, youth centres and schools, along with user guides to engage community members in discussions on Ebola prevention and response. To this end, the research is assessing the contributions of broadcast media in curbing the spread of Ebola virus in Nigeria.
1.2 Problems Statement
Ebola virus was discovered in 1976 and since then 2,265 reported cases of Ebola fever in humans around the world of these victims, 1,531 resulted in death killed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC, 2012). In Nigeria, 56 cases have been reported of which 6 has been killed by the disease.
Inadequate information and rumour about Ebola virus when first broke out has been attributed to the spread of the virus as many were misled particularly in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Togo e.t.c on the causes, mode of transmission, prevention, cure as little is known by people at that time thereby living people with speculations on social media. In fact, it was spread one time that bathing with salt, eating of bitter cola among others prevent Ebola spread and lots of Nigerians who were seriously panic perform the rituals but avert Ebola, this which killed some hypertensive patient in the North.
It was the media liberated the people through drama, music, news, interview among other. The research is concerned to know the extent which broadcast media has been used at the break of Ebola virus and how influential is media in moulding and shaping the perception and opinion of people about the virus
It is against this background to examine the contributions of broadcast media in curbing the spread of Ebola virus in Nigeria particularly University of Lagos students who were in the city of Lagos where the case was first reported.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
i To ascertain the extent which broadcast media (television and radio has curbed the spread of Ebola virus disease among Unilag students.
ii. To find out whether Unilag students receive adequate information on Ebola virus through broadcast media programmes.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent has broadcast media programme curb the spread of Ebola virus disease among Unilag students through information?
- Do students of Unilag received adequate information on Ebola virus through drama programmes?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Fundamentally, it is essential we understand current usage and behaviour and identify potential problems so that they can be addressed. This can be seen in the amount of academic studies on mass media within the last seven years.
Therefore, the overall motivation for conducting this study is to contribute to research about mass media in Nigeria. This research should also create a platform for further research in this field and how it affects information processes as well as other spheres of life.
This research should provide useful data for the general publics and professionals as well as educators as to how they can maximize dramatic approach in appealing to the people.
Future researchers who many what to carry out research in this area or related aspect will find this materials as reference point.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study assessing the contributions of broadcast media in curbing the spread of Ebola virus in Nigeria has been limited in scope to the students of University of Lagos, Akoka because it is very difficult if not impossible to study all students due to inadequate time, fund, geographical structure of Nigeria and other logistics. Yet any finding arrived at will be generalized on the people in Nigeria.
1.7 Operational Definition of the Terms
To effectively do justice to this research project, there is need to explain some of the key words:
Contributions: It refers to the impact of drama programmes on educating people about Ebola disease.
Curbing: It is an effort to prevent the spread of Ebola virus in Nigeria and one of such preventive measure was the use of drama, music, interview.
Ebola disease: This is a deathly virus that affected humans and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys and gorillas) which can be contracted.
IMPACT OF BROADCAST MEDIA IN CURBING EBOLA VIRUS IN NIGERIA
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