ABSTRACT: The study examined the level of acceptability and rating of radio stations in Osun State among students of Osun State University Osogbo. Media programming has been one of the important yardsticks to measure the effectiveness and rating of the popularity of media houses. The research was anchored on the Uses and Gratifications and Source Credibility Theory. Survey method was used in this study while questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the respondents who are students of Osun State University, Osogbo. 250 students were sampled using probability sampling techniques. The data collected were analysed using frequency and percentage method. Findings show that majority of the respondents (76%) listen to radio stations and spend between 1-4 hours. It is also reported that many of the respondents preferred news, politics, and health programmes to others on Rave F.M followed by OSBC and Gold Fm respectively. The study recommends that media ownership should be based on national interest and public interest so that many audiences will show interest. The media should also develop programmes and activities that are very interesting and audience driven that will make them stay turn rather than flowing away.
rating of radio station
1.1 Background to the Study
Communication is a basic human need and for that reason, man has always found a means of satisfying this need. It is believed that no human society can function effectively if there is no exchange of ideas, experiences, etc between and among the people within the society since no man can live in isolation of others (Adeniran, 2015).
The earliest forms of trado-media, interpersonal and group forms of communication had the benefit of being easy to use and did not necessarily need complex technologies. The weaknesses of not being able to communicate to large audience or expose to it anytime led to the development of mass media such as: telegraph (point to point communication) newspapers, magazines, radio and television and to the recent Internet/ICT/ which has helped in broadening the scope of mass communication. Adeniran (2015)
The term mass media simply translates to the modern means of giving news, opinion, education and entertainment to large numbers of people, especially through radio, television, newspapers, magazines, films and internet. A medium is the channel through which a message travels from the source to the receiver. Mass media is an umbrella terms used for all means of communication to a wider and larger audience residing in different geographical locations.
Akinfeleye (2004) defines mass media as a means or channels through which messages or information are transferred or disseminate to a wider and larger heterogeneous audience who are residing in a diverse location.
The focus of this research is on the peoples preference for one medium to another. Peoples exposure to media channels and programmes are determined by their personal preference and gratification in meeting their information need. Some people like sport so they exposed themself to sport channels either on the cable channels, newspaper, radio, online e.g www.goal.com, supersport, etc
Media ownership is another factor that determine the media preference of the people because the owner of the media influence its contents and as a result of this, too much ownership influence may push some people away from such station or medium. For instance, since the broadcast of Real Buhari on AIT during the electioneering many have withdrew the credibility have on the channel for breach of trust.
Another responsible factor leading to media preference of the people is their social background, people who are rich may have access to multiple channels local, state, national and international. Education: some media are design for the literate such as newspaper and magazine, therefore, illiterate may not have interest in them since they are not educated. Political affiliate: today in our society, politics influence our ways of life to a larger extent, thus, many PDP for instance may not like listening to Unique F.M, watch OSBS and read Osun Defender believing that it will not carry good stories about their party and cannot paint incumbent government negatively. Other dictating factors include but not limited to ethnicity, locations of the people, media contents and media language.
For the purpose of this research effort is dwelled on the major radio stations available in Osun state such as OSBC radio 104.5 FM Osogbo; Gold 95.5 FM, Ilesha; Unique 101.3 FM, Ilesha, RAVE 91.7 FM, Osogbo, Crown 101.5 FM, Ile-Ife etc with the view to know the radio that gain public acceptability and best rating in terms of programming and meeting students of Osun State University needs and gratification. Also, to know factor(s) responsible for their acceptability since source is the Medium. It is against his background that the research is trying to analysis the level of acceptability and ratings of radio stations in Osun State among students of Osun State University Osogbo.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Media acceptability and audience preference differs from an individual to individuals, group to group and community to community, this depends on their gratification, taste and what they use the media for or what they expected of media in their location. Some use media for education, entertainment, enlightenment while others use it for socialization, information etc whatever is there needs, they look for the medium or media that can meet their gratifications and once the medium or media is doing it well, they may have preference over one media on the other.
Some of factors responsible for peoples certain rating and preference could be attributed to personal preference and gratification in meeting their information need, media ownership structure, source credibility because source is the medium, social background, level of education and exposure, religion and political affiliates, ethnicity, locations of the people, media contents and media language among others.
It is against his backdrop that the research examines the level of acceptability and ratings of radio stations in Osun State among students of Osun State Polytechnic Iree based on how they are perceived and received.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
i. To ascertain the radio station that is mostly preferred by the students of Osun State University Osogbo.
ii. To examines some of the factor(s) that influence students acceptability and ratings of certain radio stations over others.
1.4 Research Questions
i. What radio station is mostly preferred by the students of Osun State Polytechnic Iree?
ii. What factor(s) inform students acceptability and ratings of radio stations?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will help to provide adequate insight to meet the changing demands in the dynamic media environment of our society hereby helping media managers to make better decisions.
The study will assist the media practitioners to know that its role can make and fall the its media industries.
Other beneficial of the study are media owners who will know how their action and reaction is crippling the success and public credibility of their media outfit.
Future researchers will find this work very interesting to use as a reference material for their new research and see what previous researchers have done.
Government agencies that are saddled with the responsibility to ensure fairness and media consistency will also see the need to come up will new laws that will reduce ownership influence and other abuse of the media especially in this democratic era so that the public will come to trust such medium since the medium is the message.
It will add to the mass communication literature and bulk of knowledge on media performance in Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research has been narrowed in scope to Osun State University Osogbo due to the proximity, convenience, time, fund, materials and other logistics since it will not only be difficult but impossible to study all the people in Osun state.
Hence, demography of respondents such as age, sex, education, marital status and others will be studied before the administration of the research tool to the selected respondents to know if any of this influence their media of preference.
1.7 Limitations to the Study
Although, it is too earlier to start pointing at limitations, nevertheless, some limitations are visible at the outset of this research.
First, the research is limited to the students of Osun State University Osogbo with responses are to be generated only from the institution.
Duration for the research work is relatively short compared to tasks involved in carrying out this research, as there are other stresses emanating from other academic activities.
There are a few literature available in this aspect as few researchers have explored the area. In all, the researcher will make sure that the constraints mentioned above are managed adequately to come up with a new and worthwhile knowledge for further research in the field.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Acceptability: This refers to the level in which the students of Osun State University Osogbo like one radio station over another in Osun State.
Ratings: This is the degree at which the audience rate radio stations in Osun state when compare with other channels in terms of quality reception, quality programme and style of programming
Radio Stations: These include but not limited to OSBC radio 104.5 FM Osogbo; Gold 95.5 FM, Ilesha; Unique 101.3 FM, Ilesha, RAVE 91.7 FM, Osogbo, Crown 101.5 FM, Ile-Ife etc that students of Osun state polytechnic do have access to.