DESIGN A MIXED METHOD STUDY, EXPLAIN IN DETAILS THE 3 STAGES IN THE STUDY

INTRODUCTION

Most time researchers especially the experienced one often like to use mixed method approach when conducting research. This approach is agreed more with the position of Critical Perspective scholars who believe that neither qualitative nor quantitative research approach is enough to study a phenomenon. The theoretical bases for quantitative and qualitative research are rooted in postpositivism and constructivism while mixed method is rooted from the critical perspective. In many ways, qualitative and quantitative data are inherently related. All qualitative data are based on qualitative judgments; all quanti­tative data can be described numerically.

The researcher may design mixed method of qualitative and quantitative research method with the use of survey method and Focus Group Discussion. It afforded the researcher to use questionnaire and FGD interview Guide in gathering data from the respondents. The two methods are used to complement the limitations in each of the research methods. FGD is meant to elicit background information on the phenomenon among the participants while the survey is designed to elicit responses based on respondents’ perceptions of the phenomenon.

What is a Mixed Method Research

            The term “mixed methods” refers to an emergent methodology of research that advances the systematic integration, or “mixing,” of quantitative and qualitative data within a single investigation or sustained program of inquiry. The basic premise of this methodology is that such integration permits a more complete and synergistic utilization of data than do separate quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis (Wisdom, 2013)

            Mixed method emerged as the “third methodological movement” (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007, p.13). As an important new research community, it involves research in which both qualitative and quantita­tive approaches to data gathering, analysis, interpretation, and presentation are used (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009, p. 7); Wisdom (2013:2).

Stages of Mixed Method Research

There are about three stages involved in conducting mixed method research. Wisdom (2013) offers the following as some of the stages involved in mixed method research.

i.          Collecting and analyzing both quantitative (closed-ended) and qualitative (open-ended)    data.

ii.         Using rigorous procedures in collecting and analyzing data appropriate to each method’s   tradition, such as ensuring the appropriate sample size for quantitative and qualitative            analysis.

iii.        Integrating the data during data collection, analysis, or discussion.

Stage 1: Collect Quantitative Data

Depend on what the researcher is desired and the method that is the main focus and the one that is playing a complementing role. Because sometimes, qualitative is used to complement quantitative research and vice versa. If the researcher conducted quantitative research first as the leading method, then it is called quantitative qualitative research i.e quan-qual. Survey method, case study and content analysis method are some of the methods that quantitative study featured.

The main data collection instrument for quantitative research is questionnaire in the case of survey, coding sheet in the case of content analysis.

Stage 2: Collect Qualitative data

If the qualitative is the main research approach, while quantitative is being used to complement it, then the research is called qualitative quantitative design i.e qual-quan. Qualitative researches rely on Focus Group Discussion, In-depth interview, Historical research, field observation, experimental research. FGD Guide is used to collect data for FGD as a qualitative method, Interview Guide for In-depth Interview.  

Stage 3: Analysis, Integrate the findings and discuss the findings

The last stage is to analysis, integrate and blend the findings from both qualitative and quantitative data and see if the findings agree with each other or not i.e what is the level of convergence and divergence in the findings. The quantitative data is analysed using statistics (descriptive and inferential statistics) such as frequency and percentage, Chi-Squeal, Anova, Macova, Regression analysis etc depend on the objective of the study. While qualitative research adopted Grounded analysis, Thematic analysis and other qualitative data analysis which does not involve statistics.

EXTRACT OF A MIXED METHOD RESEARCH (QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE) QUANQUAL

1.         Research Design- Survey Method (Quantitative) and FGD Method (Qualitative)

The research design for this study is a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative research method with the use of survey method and Focus Group Discussion. It afforded the researcher to use questionnaire and FGD questions in gathering data from the respondents. The two methods were triangulated to complement the limitations in each of the research methods. FGD is meant to elicit background information on the phenomenon among the participants while the survey is designed to elicit responses based on respondents’ perceptions of the phenomenon.

            Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the survey. In the first stage, one local government was selected in each of the three senatorial districts of Niger State  using purposive sampling because those local governments have distinct rural areas.

INTRODUCTION

Most time researchers especially the experienced one often like to use mixed method approach when conducting research. This approach is agreed more with the position of Critical Perspective scholars who believe that neither qualitative nor quantitative research approach is enough to study a phenomenon. The theoretical bases for quantitative and qualitative research are rooted in postpositivism and constructivism while mixed method is rooted from the critical perspective. In many ways, qualitative and quantitative data are inherently related. All qualitative data are based on qualitative judgments; all quanti­tative data can be described numerically.

The researcher may design mixed method of qualitative and quantitative research method with the use of survey method and Focus Group Discussion. It afforded the researcher to use questionnaire and FGD interview Guide in gathering data from the respondents. The two methods are used to complement the limitations in each of the research methods. FGD is meant to elicit background information on the phenomenon among the participants while the survey is designed to elicit responses based on respondents’ perceptions of the phenomenon.

What is a Mixed Method Research

            The term “mixed methods” refers to an emergent methodology of research that advances the systematic integration, or “mixing,” of quantitative and qualitative data within a single investigation or sustained program of inquiry. The basic premise of this methodology is that such integration permits a more complete and synergistic utilization of data than do separate quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis (Wisdom, 2013)

            Mixed method emerged as the “third methodological movement” (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007, p.13). As an important new research community, it involves research in which both qualitative and quantita­tive approaches to data gathering, analysis, interpretation, and presentation are used (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009, p. 7); Wisdom (2013:2).

Stages of Mixed Method Research

There are about three stages involved in conducting mixed method research. Wisdom (2013) offers the following as some of the stages involved in mixed method research.

i.          Collecting and analyzing both quantitative (closed-ended) and qualitative (open-ended)    data.

ii.         Using rigorous procedures in collecting and analyzing data appropriate to each method’s   tradition, such as ensuring the appropriate sample size for quantitative and qualitative            analysis.

iii.        Integrating the data during data collection, analysis, or discussion.

Stage 1: Collect Quantitative Data

Depend on what the researcher is desired and the method that is the main focus and the one that is playing a complementing role. Because sometimes, qualitative is used to complement quantitative research and vice versa. If the researcher conducted quantitative research first as the leading method, then it is called quantitative qualitative research i.e quan-qual. Survey method, case study and content analysis method are some of the methods that quantitative study featured.

The main data collection instrument for quantitative research is questionnaire in the case of survey, coding sheet in the case of content analysis.

Stage 2: Collect Qualitative data

If the qualitative is the main research approach, while quantitative is being used to complement it, then the research is called qualitative quantitative design i.e qual-quan. Qualitative researches rely on Focus Group Discussion, In-depth interview, Historical research, field observation, experimental research. FGD Guide is used to collect data for FGD as a qualitative method, Interview Guide for In-depth Interview.  

Stage 3: Analysis, Integrate the findings and discuss the findings

The last stage is to analysis, integrate and blend the findings from both qualitative and quantitative data and see if the findings agree with each other or not i.e what is the level of convergence and divergence in the findings. The quantitative data is analysed using statistics (descriptive and inferential statistics) such as frequency and percentage, Chi-Squeal, Anova, Macova, Regression analysis etc depend on the objective of the study. While qualitative research adopted Grounded analysis, Thematic analysis and other qualitative data analysis which does not involve statistics.

EXTRACT OF A MIXED METHOD RESEARCH (QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE) QUANQUAL

1.         Research Design- Survey Method (Quantitative) and FGD Method (Qualitative)

The research design for this study is a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative research method with the use of survey method and Focus Group Discussion. It afforded the researcher to use questionnaire and FGD questions in gathering data from the respondents. The two methods were triangulated to complement the limitations in each of the research methods. FGD is meant to elicit background information on the phenomenon among the participants while the survey is designed to elicit responses based on respondents’ perceptions of the phenomenon.

            Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the survey. In the first stage, one local government was selected in each of the three senatorial districts of Niger State  using purposive sampling because those local governments have distinct rural areas.

The second stage involved the selection of two wards in each local government area, simple random sampling was used to pick ward 5 and ward 7 to represent Boripe Local Government, while  ward 3 and ward 9 were selected in Egbedore Local Government, whereas, Obokun local government was represented by ward 2 and ward 4 respectively.

            The last stage involved the selection of 30 respondents in each of the ward using purposive sampling method because most of the rural communities do not have an established house layout structure as people are crowded at one strategic place or the other after a day work from farms or market. Therefore a total of 180 respondents were drawn in all.   

            On FGD, four (4) participants were drawn in each of the local government that represents the senatorial district to form FGD participants making 3 groups of five participants for FGD.    The main data collection instruments for this research were questionnaire (for the survey) and Interview Guide (for the FGD) because the duo were effective data collection instrument to generate quantitative and qualitative data respectively especially when dealing with people’s opinions.

The reason for the triangulation of the two research methods was to complement the limitation in each of the research methods. The questionnaire was structured and designed in a way that afforded the respondents to answer the research questions appropriately. The questionnaire comprised two sections. Section A was embedded with respondents bio-data in order to elicit respondents’ demographic details while Section B was concerned with questions relating to the research questions. Also, the FGD interview schedule contains questions that were designed to elicit detailed opinions and generate background data on the research at hand from rural dwellers. 

            Since the data collection instruments (questionnaire and interview guide) were standard instruments of data gathering, the researchers consulted senior colleagues in the department for expert review and modifications. Also, some copies were used as a pilot test to make further adjustment to the questions’ structure before distribution and use. This gave accurate and encompassing questions for effective and efficient data collection.

    The method of data collection for this research is a face-to-face administration of the questionnaire to the respondents and group interview/discussion conducted for the selected participants. Their consent was sought before administration of the research instruments for immediate and later collection depending on respondents’ disposition whereas, in the case of FGD interview, 4 participants were interviewed together and gave room for discussion using a voice recorder to tape the discussion down which was later transcribed and presented. The FGD groups were at three different places. 

            The data were analysed with descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20. Also, the Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was summarized and interpreted through thematic and narrative techniques.

The second stage involved the selection of two wards in each local government area, simple random sampling was used to pick ward 5 and ward 7 to represent Boripe Local Government, while  ward 3 and ward 9 were selected in Egbedore Local Government, whereas, Obokun local government was represented by ward 2 and ward 4 respectively.

            The last stage involved the selection of 30 respondents in each of the ward using purposive sampling method because most of the rural communities do not have an established house layout structure as people are crowded at one strategic place or the other after a day work from farms or market. Therefore a total of 180 respondents were drawn in all.   

            On FGD, four (4) participants were drawn in each of the local government that represents the senatorial district to form FGD participants making 3 groups of five participants for FGD.    The main data collection instruments for this research were questionnaire (for the survey) and Interview Guide (for the FGD) because the duo were effective data collection instrument to generate quantitative and qualitative data respectively especially when dealing with people’s opinions.

The reason for the triangulation of the two research methods was to complement the limitation in each of the research methods. The questionnaire was structured and designed in a way that afforded the respondents to answer the research questions appropriately. The questionnaire comprised two sections. Section A was embedded with respondents bio-data in order to elicit respondents’ demographic details while Section B was concerned with questions relating to the research questions. Also, the FGD interview schedule contains questions that were designed to elicit detailed opinions and generate background data on the research at hand from rural dwellers. 

            Since the data collection instruments (questionnaire and interview guide) were standard instruments of data gathering, the researchers consulted senior colleagues in the department for expert review and modifications. Also, some copies were used as a pilot test to make further adjustment to the questions’ structure before distribution and use. This gave accurate and encompassing questions for effective and efficient data collection.

    The method of data collection for this research is a face-to-face administration of the questionnaire to the respondents and group interview/discussion conducted for the selected participants. Their consent was sought before administration of the research instruments for immediate and later collection depending on respondents’ disposition whereas, in the case of FGD interview, 4 participants were interviewed together and gave room for discussion using a voice recorder to tape the discussion down which was later transcribed and presented. The FGD groups were at three different places. 

            The data were analysed with descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20. Also, the Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was summarized and interpreted through thematic and narrative techniques.

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