ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to compare media management in the print and the broadcast media, concentrating on NTA, Osogbo, and Osun Defender Newspaper. Another justification for conducting this study is to understand the significance of management in media organizations and how media management affects media operations, staff performance, and overall success. The theories that gave this study a footing are System Theory and Theory X and Y. A survey research method was adopted questionnaire was administered to the respondents that were drawn within Osun Defender and NTA, Osogbo using non-probability sampling technique (purposive sampling) out of which 90 copies were correctly filled and analyzed. The data were analyzed using frequency and percentage method while the data were presented with the aid of tables. The study finds out that fund and ownership influence are the core challenges facing both the print (Osun Defender) and the broadcast media (NTA). It was recommended that the management of media outfits should see their staff as major stakeholders in decision making while they should be allowed to voice their opinions on matters concerning the operation of the station while staff should be motivated and encouraged to work effectively, this will further prevent them from doing unethical practice.
Table of Contents
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 5
1.6 Scope of Study 5
1.7 Limitations to the Study 6
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 6
2.0 Literature Review 7
2.1 Empirical Framework 7
2.2 Conceptual Review 8
2.3 Theoretical Framework 24
3.0 Research Methodology 26
3.1 Research Design 26
3.2 Research Method 26
3.3 Restatement of Research Questions 26
3.4 Characteristics of the study Population 27
3.5 Sample Size 27
3.6 Sampling Technique 27
3.7 Administration of Data Collection Instrument 27
3.8 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 27
3.9 Data Collection Instrument 28
3.10 Data Analysis Method 28
4.0 Data Analysis Presentation 29
4.1 Data Analysis 29
4.2 Demography of the Participants 29
4.3 Discussion of Findings 39
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 40
5.1 Summary 41
5.2 Conclusion 41
5.3 Recommendations 41
1.1 Background to the Study
No single organization can boast of its success or survival for another year; if it fails to manage the human, material, and other resources carefully and judiciously. Management is synonymous with success in business or organization. Also, there is no amount of funds used in establishing a firm and without adequate management. it will run out and crash in due time.
Management is a common activity in human society. Virtually everyone practices management on a daily basis either consciously or unconsciously. From the basic individual and family levels to large multi-national organizations, management takes place. Management is a more serious subject in media organizations because of the role media play in our society. To manage media organizations in this age of competition and media proliferation is no doubt a serious business. It requires some uncommon qualities and calls for special duties.
Management, however, is the manipulation of resources to achieve pre-determined objectives. Aina,(2002). Management is a process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling available resources of an organization in order to achieve the set goals of the organization (Okafor and Udu 2005). The imperativeness of management in an organization is very monumental. Improper adoption of management techniques in most cases results to collapse and breakdown in such organizations, especially in a developing country like Nigeria.
Media management is the process by which the Editor-in-Chief or General Manager coordinates all the processes, planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of media activities through various sub-ordinates and assistants in order to attain organizational objectives. Media management is an act of coordinating, controlling, and commanding both human and material resources in the print and broadcast media to achieve organizational goals.
In other words, media management can also be defined as applying and adopting a suitable theory to enhance the smooth running of a media house. Media management can also be described as a group of people coordinating the affair of another group of people to achieve a particular purpose in media practice.
Meanwhile, several factors have been identified to be responsible for the challenges faced by media organizations, but unfortunately, improper management seems to be the core of challenges faced by media organizations. Where there is no ownership influence clashing with proper media, there is the pursuit of commercial gain, clashing with proper values. No media is ready to produce anything that will go against the management intention as well as the ownership structure.
The term “broadcast media” is a means of transmission that enables electronic media (audio, audio-visual) of information, message, and idea, to a wider number of people listening or viewing, usually simultaneously. Examples are radio and television. Broadcasting is the transmission through space by means of radio frequencies of signals capable of being received either aurally or both aurally and visually by the general public”. Chester et al, (1963) cited in Oyekanmi (2008).
Similarly, print media is a type of media that disseminate information to a large and wide audience through newspapers and magazines. Section 2 of the Newspaper Act of 1958 defines a newspaper as any paper containing public news, intelligence or any remarks, observations, and comments, thereon printed for sale and published.
A newspaper is a scheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features, and advertising. It is usually printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint. By 2007, there were 6580 daily newspapers in the world selling 395 million copies a day. The worldwide recession of 2008, combined with the rapid growth of web-based alternatives, caused a serious decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers closed or sharply retrenched operations (Plambeck, 2010).
People wonder how newspaper produces every day and also wonder how radio and television broadcast new issues every day, the magic is that, media is divided into unit and department that are handled by specialists that are best fitted for it because they know that their job is time-bound and any delay may be suicidal as the audience can flow out or buy rival newspapers.
The specialists may include reporters, editors, newscasters, presenters, engineering, artists, administrators, etc who works on the principle of division of labour in such a way that each job and department is manned by persons that are best fit for it. It is this division or grouping of media activities into sections to achieve organizational goals that are referred to as media departmentalization or organizational structure or media management (Aina, 2002).
This aspect shall be extensively explained under the system theory of management which sees an organization as a structure with many parts that function together to form a whole. While this study is interested to compare media management in the print and broadcast industry in Nigeria with a specific focus on the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and Osun Defender newspaper.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The research comparatively analyses media management in the print and broadcast industry with a particular focus on the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and Osun Defender. Managing, controlling, and commanding a media outfit requires skill task and knowledge, especially in this era of media proliferation and the emergence of new media that has brought a shift in audience consumption patterns.
Funding is another identified challenge because the equipment in broadcast media is very expensive and becomes outdated after some time when modern equipment is produced, especially now that broadcasting is moving to the digital age. Other research problems of decision making, environmental problems, psychological constraints, burnout, stress, and others that arise in poor and improper management.
The research is thus set to comparatively analyzing media management in the print and broadcast industry in Nigeria with a specific focus on the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and Osun Defender newspaper with the view to examine the role played by the media managers and other managerial challenges capable of leading to organizational success and failure.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To determine the impact of management on the media industry.
- To ascertain which of the media industry uphold effective and efficient media management between broadcast and newspaper industry.
- To determine whether ownership pattern influence editorial contents and programming independence of NTA, Osogbo, and Osun Defender newspaperWhat is the impact of management in the media industry?
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the impact of management on the media industry?
- Which media industry upholds effective and efficient media management between the broadcast and newspaper industries?
- To what extent has ownership pattern influenced editorial contents and programming independence of NTA, Osogbo, and Osun Defender newspaper?
1.5 Significance of the Study
- The study is very significant as it will offer benefits to individuals and groups of people. Media planners will through the findings of this study come to understand why they need to plan and design strategies capable of improving their media content which will in turn encourage flow into media rather than flowing out.
- It will assist journalists and media practitioners to work in line with the house ethics and policy set up in their respective media outfits to ensure success.
- The study will help to provide adequate insight to meet the changing demands in the dynamic media environment of our society hereby helping media managers to make better management policies and decisions.
- Other benefits of the study are media owners who will know how their actions and reactions can cripple the success and public credibility of their media outfit.
- Government agencies that are saddled with the responsibility to ensure fairness and media un bias will also see the need to come up will new laws that will reduce ownership influence, especially in this democratic era so that the public will come to trust such medium.
- The result of the study will serve as reference materials for further studies in management, government, and mass communication while future researchers will find this work very interesting to use as a reference material for their new work and see what previous researchers have done. It will add to the body of knowledge in the field of mass communication and other related disciplines while future scholars who may want to research in aspects similar to this will find the material helpful.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research has been narrowed in scope to the management of NTA, Osogbo, and Osun Defender due to the proximity of the media outfits to the researcher. Another reason for limiting the scope to NTA, Osogbo and Osun Defender is because one is a government media and the other is a privately set up media.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
It is therefore important that some terms used in this study should be decoded within the context of their usage.
Comparative analysis: To carefully accesses the similarities and differences in the way NTA Osogbo and Osun Defender manage their media.
Media management: Management is a process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling available resources in NTA and Osun Defender Newspaper in order to achieve the set goals of the organization.
Print Media: These refer to media that disseminate information to a large audience in print form such as the Osun Defender newspaper.
Broadcast Industry: Broadcasting media in this context is the Nigerian Television Authority
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MEDIA MANAGEMENT IN PRINT & BROADCAST MEDIA
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