ABSTRACT: The study examined the impact of advertising on telecommunication network preference by students of Osun State University Osogbo because advertisement is a persuasive message and those exposed to such may cultivate the message. The study used Uses and Gratification and Perception Theory. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 150 respondents among students of Osun State University in all the faculties of the institution. The study used a survey and data were collected through a questionnaire. Out of 150 administered questionnaires only correctly filled 140 copies were analysed using frequency, percentage and tables. Findings show that many of the respondents were highly exposed to adverts from telecommunication companies usually through television (57.8%) radio (21.4%) and billboards (5.7%). The majority of the respondents (54.3%) are often exposed to various commercials from telecommunication giants but mostly from MTN, Airtel and Glo who are the three major rivals. No wonder MTN and Glo have the highest fans followed by Airtel with Etisalat coming last on the preference table. It should be stressed that quality network, quality data and bonuses are key rating factors for the telecommunication giant among students of Osun State University Osogbo. It is recommended that advertisers should try as much as possible to present their messages to their targeted audience using the most appropriate medium and time while advertisers should avoid deceits and other propaganda in convincing GSM users of their products or packages.
1.1 Background of the Study
One function of the mass media which is becoming increasingly important in the modern world is the economic functions of advertising. The mass media perform this function for the people by bringing together buyers and sellers through advertisements. Advertising is one of the ingredients in sustaining business whether the company is dealing with products or services. And when formulating or preparing advertising campaign there is need to develop a good strategies, tactics and appeal that will sell the products or services. And in doing this, the following can be observed. Akinrosoye (2004) highlighted three steps:
i. Getting the right message
ii. Hitting the target audience
iii. At the right time (i.e using appropriate channel at the right time).
No company can become a market leader unless they invest lots of their investment in promotional purposes (Hussainy, Riaz, Kazi, and Herani, 2008). The major aim of advertising is to impact on buying behaviour; however, this impact about brand is changed or strengthened frequently peoples memories. Memories about the brand consist of those associations that are related to brand name in consumers mind which will aid recall any time.
It should be noted that advertising strategy rests heavily on getting the right message. It is now very common to hear musical jingles on the radio or the television, this shows a great relationship between entertainment and commerce.
Again, the world is fast becoming a common market place of ideas. Many multinational companies such as MTN, AIRTEL, GLO etc have come to realize that people have the same basic needs and desires. Consequently, they have heeded to calls for global marketing and can promote their goods and services using advertisements.
Also, the essence of being in business by any commercial organisation is to produce for sales and profits. For an organisation to continue to be in business such organisation must generate enough sales from its products or services to cover operating costs and post reasonable profits.
For many organizations, sales estimate is the starting point in budgeting or profit planning. It is so because it must be determined, in most cases before production units could be arrived at.
In an industrial and free competitive market economy, where the interplay of economic variables dictates the market, the problem of survival of business becomes a very nightmarish one for producers and manufacturers. The singular desire of manufacturers becomes how to create awareness and market for their goods. Advertising is then one strategy that fulfils the desire completely. The desire to be buoyant in business and to increase profit has given advertisement an irrevocable reputation.
Advertising is not undertaken by management just for fun or to keep products or services. It is principally involved in persuasion or advocacy even apparently just giving us information, using media that are paid for it to get through to the mass audience with the identity of the advertisers being clear. Advertising has the mandate to sell the advertisers goods and help the consumers to shop wisely.
Similarly, of all marketing weapons, advertising has leading impact on viewers mind, as its exposure is much more felt. (Katke, 2007). Marketing mix has four subsets i.e. product, price, place and promotion. Advertising is a component of promotional mix, which is used to create awareness about products and services for taking purchase decisions (Akinrosoye, 2004).
Marketers use these types of tool for communication purpose. Advertisement evolves date back in the ancient times. Different societies used different types of symbols for the promotion of the products and services for attracting consumers.
No company can become a market leader unless they invest lots of their investment in promotional purposes (Hussainy et al., 2008). The major aim of advertising is to impact on buying behaviour; however, this impact about brand is changed or strengthened frequently peoples memories. Memories about the brand consist of those associations that are related to brand name in consumer mind.
The major objective of consumer behaviour analysis is to determine the factors that influence consumers behaviour in a particular circumstance. Consumer behaviour analysis is helpful for advertiser to understand the behaviour of consumer in buying different situations.
It is against this background that the research examines the impact of advertising on telecommunication network preference among students of Osun State University Osogbo.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
For business to yield profit and survive in any competitive environment it need the help of advertising and because of this, many entrepreneurs or companies indulge in illegal advertising so as to get what they want in business. By so doing, they introduce fraudulent and unethical practices that mislead the public, customers, or consumers into leaving the better brand to the worse brand and also into buying the wrong products known as imitations. Okoye (2011) writes that this practice makes advertising profession lose its good essence, credibility and interest. It also discourages consumers from paying attention to advertising messages.
Many advertised products and services unable to perform its functions as advertised to the consumers. Different appeals are used to convey the advert messages and in the recent time musical approach has taken the new dimension.
However, there are many research on advert that focused on celebrity endorsement while there are few research ever conducted on the extent which Nigerians prefer one telecommunication network over another, even those available were of foreign focus which might be difficult to be applied to the Nigeria context in the likes of Karailievová (2012), Abimaje (2016) etc. It is on this thrust that this study is set out to examine the impact of advertising on telecommunication network preference among students of Osun State University Osogbo.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
i. To examine the extent which UNIOSUN students are exposed to telecommunication advertisements.
ii. To know the extent which telecommunication advertisements have influenced buying and usage of telecommunication network.
iii. To examine the telecommunication network brand advertisement that is often exposed to by the Osun State University students.
1.4 Research Questions
i. What is the extent of UNIOSUN students exposure to the telecommunication advertisements?
ii. To what extent has telecommunication advertisement influenced buying and usage of telecommunication network?
iii. Which of the telecommunication network advertisement campaigns are often exposed to by the Osun State University students?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research finding will contribute significantly to the existing body of knowledge in the area of mass communication, advertising and marketing in general.
The advertisers will through this study realized and understand the true impact of various appeals especially musical appeals to the memorability of products and services especially in the era of competing brands. Also, the kind of music and celebrities use contribute significantly to trail customers.
Media such as radio, television, digital platforms including and advertising agencies may gain from this study as it will uncover what consumers wants and how they is want so to design an appeal which music approach is one to gain more audience to their clients.
All government and other stakeholder that are saddled with the responsibility of ensuring fair and suitable commercial may equally benefit from this study as it serves as an eye opening by monitoring the kind of lyrics and other musical instruments combine in other to prevent obscene, respect for the mirror and religion among others by enforcing truthfulness, fairness and non- deceit campaign that may persuade or lure audience to buy less quality products.
Researchers from advertising, marketing, mass communication and other related field may who may be interested in conducting similar or related one shall find this study relevant as it offers them empirical opportunity to see what has been done while it will serve as a reference materials for them, thus fill some gaps in musical advertising and how it works especially in this era where music is gaining more momentum in the society.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research titled impact of advertising on telecommunication network preference by students has been narrowed in scope to students of Osun State University .
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Impact: This refers to the contributions or influence of advertising have on the telecommunication brand OSPOLY students.
Airtel: This is one of the telecommunication companies in Nigeria which ownership has severally been transferred. It is acclaimed smartphone network in Nigeria.
MTN: This is a foremost private telecommunication service provider in Nigeria that offers data, calling and sales of communication devices to Nigerians Osun State university community.
Advertising: These are various commercials disseminated through various mass media such as local, state, national and cable network radio, television and newspapers including online platforms.