ABSTRACT: The study examined the impact of graphic communication on newspaper readership. Graphic arts play a very prominent role in newspaper and in the print media in general. It communicates messages even to the illiterates. Also, from the data analysis and findings, it is observed that graphic arts draw the attention of readers to the most prominent news and issue especially when placed at the front page of a newspaper while it also used to set agenda on what public will debate upon that day. In fact the headline scanners and graphics scanner always find it easy to know the most important news of the day. Without much emphasis, graphic arts communicate message than what a thousand words could tell. For the purpose of this work the researcher employed the use of survey method. The data collection instrument used was questionnaire which was used to elicit data from the sample size. It was recommended that print media should always use only important graphics in terms of size.
Table of Contents
Table of contents vi
List of Tables v
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 6
1.6 Scope of the Study 6
1.7 Limitation to the Study 6
1.8 Definition of the Term 7
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.1 Definition of Newspaper 8
2.2 Functions of Newspaper 10
2.3 History of Newspaper in Nigeria 11
2.4 Departments in Newspaper Firm 15
2.5 Concept of Graphics 16
2.5 Origin of Graphics 17
2.6 Types of Graphics in Newspaper 18
2.7 What is Makeup and Design in Newspaper? 18
2.8 Impact of Photograph and Make-up on Newspaper 20
2.9 Tools for Make-up /Design 21
2.10 Elements of Make-Up 22
2.11 Photojournalism 22
2.12 History of Photography 24
2.13 Photography in Communication 25
2.14 Computer Graphics and Magazine 27
2.15 Role of Graphics in Print Media 29
2.16 Theoretical Framework 31
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1 Restatement of Research Questions 35
3.2 Research Design 35
3.3 Study Population 36
3.4 Sample size 36
3.5 Sampling Design and Technique 37
3.6 Data Collection Instrument 37
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 38
3.8 Administration of Data Collection Instrument 38
3.9 Data Analysis Procedure 38
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Data Analysis 39
4.2 Discussion of the Findings 51
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 52
5.2 Conclusion 52
5.3 Recommendations 53
5.4 Suggestion for further study 53
1.1 Background to the Study
According to Wikipedia (2014) Graphic art is the production of visual statements on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, pottery, computer screen, paper, stone or landscape and other objects. It includes everything that relates to creation of signs, charts, logos, graphs, drawings, line art, symbols, geometric designs and so on.
Graphic design is the art or profession of combining text, pictures, and ideas in advertisements, publication, or website. American Institute of Graphic Arts (2014). Writes that graphic design is a creative process that combines art and technology to communicate ideas. The designer works with a variety of communication tools in order to convey a message. The main tools are image and typography while others are shapes, colors, lines, symbols logo, cartoons and typography.
For the purpose of this study, the researcher will dwell more on photography and images which are the common form of graphics art used in convey message in newspaper publication.
In a crunching economic time with an emphasis on instantaneous online consumption, it is a struggle for print media to compete and survive. One basic tactic newspapers and magazines have often used to propel their media is the physical appeal of their product, and that is often driven by photographic visuals and design says Andie Diemer (2009).
Akinrosoye (2011) observes that visual communication is one of the oldest and most effective means of transmitting meaning. An ancient Chinese proverb cited in Akinrosoye (2011) says “One picture is worth a thousand words” pictures are remember longer than verbal messages. Picture also, conveys feeling of reality and authenticity and so may be believed more rapidly than words. Hence, action speaks lauder than voice.
Graphic art gain and hold the attention of viewers and if the communication in interrupted, the message may be readily picked up. Photography also aids page makeup and adds to the aesthetic value and generally attract the attention to a newspaper pages. Akinrosoye (2012) defines photojournalist as a reporter that gathers news but in picture form. The photojournalist captures scenes and event not in words but in a dramatic and eye-catching picture.
While graphic designer is one that work with drawn, painted photograph, or computer-generated images (pictures) but they also design the letter forms that make up various typefaces found in movie credits and TV ads; in books, magazines and menus; and even on computer screens.
Visual images demand a viewer’s attention. Photos have the ability to convey drama and emotion and realism in a way that text alone cannot. Visual images can short circuit higher levels of cognition and reasoning, because they are more lifelike and easier for the brain to process. Also, because the brain codes visual and non-visual information separately the additional memory coding can increase information recall.
By nature the visual medium demands receiver attention. The news photograph connects the reader to a story in a way that text alone cannot. Graber (1996) cited in Jay, C., et. al. (2012) said “combining pictures with words makes the message more memorable”. The overall content of pictures differ in the emotion, immediacy, and environment captured. These elements of a picture can produce dramatic information, which are not necessarily conveyed or included through textual information alone. Graber attributes this to the fact that the human brain absorbs larger amounts of information when messages are visual (1996). It is against this backdrop that the research examines graphic communication’s impact on newspaper readership in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Graphics is a visual communication that conveys meaning in a message faster than words, making it possible to communicate even to the illiterate who might not ordinary able to understand writing words. Akinrosoye (2011) observes that visual communication is one of the oldest and most effective means of transmitting meaning. An ancient Chinese proverb cited in Akinrosoye (2011) says “One picture is worth a thousand words” pictures are remembered longer than verbal messages. Hence, the research examines examines graphic communication’s impact on newspaper readership in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To examine the benefits of graphic communication to newspaper readers.
- To ascertain the attitude of readers towards graphic communication/photography in newspaper.
- To determine whether readers recall news accompanying with photograph than news without photograph?
1.4 Research Questions
- Of what benefits is graphics communication in newspaper to readers?
- What is the attitude of readers towards photographs in newspaper publication(s)?
- Do readers recall news accompanying with photograph than news without photograph?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Below are some of the beneficiaries of this research work otherwise called significance of the study. The significance of this study aims at revealing to the media practitioners on the benefit of photograph to readers. It will assist the media practitioners to know their role in keeping public informed through their camera.
Students of mass communication and other related field will know the role of photographs in newspaper production. It will further enable other researchers to continue from the aspect which this study has not covered.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research which research graphic communication’s impact on newspaper readership has been narrowed in scope to students and lecturers of Osun state Polytechnic, Iree. Thus, the geographical location of this study is Osun State. The choice of Osun State Polytechnic, Iree community is due to its proximity to the researcher.
1.7 Limitation to the Study
Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constraints, this constrains pose a lot of limitations to this work.
Time: Duration for the research work is relatively short while stress emanated from other academic activities is also another constraints.
Material: Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new.
Financial: Financial constrain poses another challenges as most of information are gathered through newspapers
1.8 Operational Definition of the Terms
Newspaper: This is written form of disseminating information to the masses such as which contains articles, news photo, advert and other form of opinions usually printed daily for the public consumption.
Graphic Communication: As the name suggests is communication through graphics and graphical aids. It is the process of creating, producing, and distributing material incorporating words and images to convey news, message, data, concepts, and especially in newspaper.
Photographs: Photograph or photo is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic image such as a CCD or a CMOS chip.