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IMPACT OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENT ON CHILDREN

(Last Updated On: 28th December 2022)

ABSTRACT: The research objective was to examined the impact of television advertisement on children with a particular focus on Kunike Nursery and Primary School Osogbo, Osun state. The study was anchored on Cognitive Dissonance Theory to give the stud a footing. A survey research method was adopted while questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the respondents who were accidentally selected between the age of 5-15. The data were analyzed in frequency and percentage method, equally, the data were presented with the aid of tables. Findings indicated that larger percentage of children were exposed to television advertisement particularly adverts on Milo, Cerelac and Golden Morn, also, according to the study, the major factor that influence children exposure to advert on television are graphic/image or illustration. The study recommended that advertisements should be structured in such a way that will not deceive children and it should perform the same functions as advertised to children while APCON should be mindful of the need to protect the public from deceitful and moral advertisements i.e advertisers should have respect for the minors by telling the truth in their message to avoid cheating under age. 


Keywords: Television Advertisement


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                   

Certification                                                                                                               

Dedication                                                                                                                  

Acknowledgement                                                                                                     

Table of Contents                                                                                                       

Abstract                                                                                                                      

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problems

1.3       Objectives of the study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Significance of the Study

1.6       Scope of the Study

1.7       Operational Definitions of Terms

            References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

            Introduction

2.1       Conceptual Framework

2.2       Empirical Review

2.3       Theoretical Framework

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Research Design

3.3       Research Method

3.4       Population of Study

3.5       Sample Size

3.6       Sample Procedure

3.7       Instrument for Data Collection

3.8       Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument       

3.9       Data Collection Process

3.10     Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

         Introduction

4.1  Demographic Analysis

4.2 Analysis of Research Questions and Related Variables

4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

            Introduction

5.1       Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

           References

          Appendix


CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1       Background to the Study

            Advertisement is one of the key elements for the development, expansion, and growth of industrial sector and ultimately for the economic development. The media and advertising campaigns are unavoidable by consumers in the 21st century. Researchers have studied and will continue to study the effects of advertisement and its influence on attitudinal change, emotions, modification of lifestyle choices and its significant role in the consumption of goods and services (Akinrosoye, 2011) cited in (Horne, 2006).

            Advertising, over the years has evolved into a powerful marketing tool in modern economics; advertising plays an important role in the growth of a business in its line of expertise. Advertising is a persuasive non-personal communication about products, services, or ideas usually paid for by identified sponsors through the various mass media. Today, we are exposed to advertisement everywhere, whether in the bus, walking round the street, on the high ways, while travelling, in the newspapers and on radio and television, SMS advert are receiving on our mobile phones, email advert/marketing we get in our inbox and particularly when surfing the internet. 

            Advertising is one of the ingredients in sustaining business whether the company is dealing with products or services. The entire business of a commercial organization or company starts and ends with advertising. That is to say, the rise and fall of any profit company depends solely on the expenditure incurred by the advertiser.

            It should be noted that when planning advertising campaign, one of the things to be considered from the outset is the type of media to be used, because different media performs present different purposes and offer different kind of results. Children advertisement is better channeled through television while adult advert can pass messages from radio, TV, billboard and print media. Illiterates cannot grab messages from newspaper, social media and other literate media.           

         Equally, adverts are placed where advertisers believe they will reach the largest, most relevant audience. Commercial business use advertisement to drive the consumption of their product, while non-profit organizations may place adverts to raise awareness or encourage a change in behaviour or perception. It should be added that, consumers don’t just buy advertised goods and service because they have enough money but rather they motivated by certain motive. Smriti (2007) writes that buying motive is the urge or motive to satisfy a desire or need that makes people buy goods or services. Motive equally, seen as thoughts, feelings, emotions and instincts, which arouse in the buyers a desire to buy.

            A buyer does not buy because s/he has been persuaded by the salesman, but s/he buys for the aroused desire in him or her. In another word, a motive is simply a reason for carrying out a particular behaviour and not an automatic response to a stimulus. Television seems to be the leading media used to advertise products, in other words commercial advertising seeks to impress the consumers about the image of a product to create a better impression in the minds of the consumers and to increase their patronage. Advertising often seeks to grant increase consumption of their products or services through branding which involves associating a product name or image with certain qualities in the mind of consumers. Hence, the research examines the impact of television advertising on children.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Television stations ability to transmit in audiovisual signal to receiving TV set at home thereby make children to associate and prefer watching one programme to the other (commercials and non-commercial) consciously or unconsciously to other activities at home. 

However, most children in their earlier growing up days neither recognize nor differentiate television programmes from adverting messages. It is very obvious that children below 3-5 years are not likely to comprehend what advert messages mean. Yet children are enticed by the picture, animation, drama aspect of advertising and the use of children of their age.

To this end, the research aims to uncover the impact of television advertising on children with a specific focus on Nestle products. 

1.3       Objectives of the study

  1. To determine the extent which children understand TV advertisement.
  2. To ascertain whether television advertising influence buying decision of children.

1.4       Research Questions

  1. To what extent do children understand TV advertisement?
  2. Does television advertising influence buying decision of children?

1.5       Significance of the Study

            The findings of this study will benefit the following groups and individuals. Some of the beneficial of the study are consumers, policy makers, advertisers, advertising agencies and advertising researchers would stand to gain a lot from the facts contained in this work.

            It will assist advertisers and advertising agencies to understand the concept of advertisement, especially, what children want, how they want it and the media they often expose to in order to know how to target them.

            Another beneficiary of this study is the media practitioner, the media practitioners are major part of the advertising family because advert messages usually pass through them so that media audience will be exposed to such message, as a result the media need to be watchful on the content their majority of the audience wish to be exposed to, media may begin to lost their audience. Therefore, the media stations need to do audience research.

Findings of this research serve as eye opener to many traditional advertising agencies to join other advertising media such as social media, email and other e-media to their practice. This study gives a clear insight into how advertising campaigns can influence consumers buying behaviour which encouraged brand owners to use suitable media of communication to market their products.

Policy formulators will equally benefit from the research by using the information of study findings to make laws that will improve advertising especially some untrue statements in some advertising messages.

Government and policy formulators can through some agencies like APCON approve, edit among other monitoring advertisement message i.e government through her agencies would see the need to enforce truthfulness, fairness and non- deceit contents in advert message in order to safe guide the public interest.

It will assist students of mass communication, advertisement, marketing and other related field to understand the concept of advertisement. The findings of this study will serve as an addition to existing literature on the topic for students who like to carry out similar research.

This research provides benefits for researchers and practitioners. For researchers, this study attempts to provide a greater understanding of the advertising information and knowledge. Future researchers will find the material relevant as it forms bulk literature that exist in the field of mass communication, journalism and media studies, etchat they can lay hands on when carrying out research related or similar to this.

1.6       Scope of the Study

            The study which examined the impact of television advertisement on children was narrowed in scope to pupils of Kunike Nursery and Primary School Osogbo, Osun state. The choice of students of Kunike Nursery and Primary School Osogbo, Osun state in was due to the proximity to the researcher, inadequate time to study all students in Osun state. Also, the demographic factors of the respondents will be studied before the administration of research instrument such factors include: age, gender, academic level e.t.c.

1.7       Operational Definitions of Terms

Impact: It refers to the influence of television advert on children.

Television station: It is an audiovisual medium for transmission of advertising messages to the children who watch it through their receiving TV set

Advertising: This is a paid form of promotional message shared through television that are usually non-personal media for the purpose of persuading and influencing children towards buying Nestle products.  

Children: This refers to the adolescent baby range from birth to twelve years old. 


WHAT TO EXPECT: (Format: MS WORD, Chapter 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Questionnaire and References)


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