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(Last Updated On: 6th December 2022)

ABSTRACT: The study examined advertisement as substance mechanism for mass media in Nigeria, using OSBC and Punch newspaper as case study. Without doubt no mass media can survive without the availability of commercials or advertisement to generate revenue for the running of the mass media. In fact, private broadcast media is not different to that of private industry which is establish with the objective of making profit. Therefore, for mass media industry especially broadcast organizations to make money and to survive in the long run, they must have constant sources or streams of revenue. Critical reviews to related literature were made. Relevant theories were used to gratify the study. Quantitative research design was used in which cross-sectional survey method was adopted while the data collection instrument was questionnaire. Findings have shown that geographical location do affect the number and price of commercials they generate on a daily basis. And that mass media located in Lagos will have commercials more than one located in Eripa, Osun state. In short the economy of an environment tells on the commercials of mass media. Finally, it is recommended that broadcast media should not because of it efforts in surviving engage unnecessarily in commercializing most of their airtime and space. More companies should be established in the country to increase the number of commercials in the country through which mass media can get most of their means of surviving.



Table of Contents





Table of contents                                                                                           


Chapter One

1.0       Introduction                                                                           

1.1       Background to the Study                                                       

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                       

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                             

1.4       Research Questions                                                                           

1.5       Significance of the Study                                                      

1.6       Limitation of the Study                                                         

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms                                            

Chapter Two

2.0       Literature Review                                                                              

2.1       Meaning of Broadcasting Media                                           

2.2       Historical Development of Broadcasting Media in Nigeria

2.3       Types of Broadcasting Media                                                

2.4       Functions of Broadcasting Media                                          

2.5       Different Department in Broadcasting Media Station           

2.6       Commercial/Marketing/Advertising Department                 

2.7       Advertising as a Concept                                                       

2.8       First Modern Advertising in Nigeria                                     

2.9       Meaning of Commercial/ Advertisement                              

2.10     Commercial and Broadcasting Media                       

2.11     Sources of Revenue for Broadcasting Media                        

2.12     The Concept of News Commercialization and Revenue Generation

2.13     Why does News Commercialization Thrive in Nigeria         

2.14     Theoretical Framework                                                                      

Chapter Three

3.0       Research Methodology                                                                      

3.1       Research Method                                                                               

3.2       Restatement of Research Questions                                      

3.3       Characteristics of the Study Population                                

3.4       Sample Size                                                                           

3.5       Sampling Design and Procedure                                           

3.6       Data Collection Instrument                                                   

3.7       Validity and Reliability of Study Instrument            

3.8       Administration of Data Collection Instrument                      

3.9       Rate of Return of Questionnaire                                            

3.10     Data Analysis Procedure                                                       

Chapter Four

4.0       Data Presentation and Analysis                                             

4.1       Data Analysis                                                                         

Chapter Five

5.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                      

5.1       Summary                                                                                            

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                         

5.3       Recommendations                                                                 




1.0       Introduction

1.1       Background to the Study

The essence of going into business by any business outfit is to make profit. Thus, for mass media organizations to make money and to survive in the long run, they must have constant sources or streams of revenue. Revenues come from sales, and the various categories of sales of a service or manufacturing firm are known as revenue streams.

The media and advertising are inseparable institutions with unique symbiotic relationship. The struggle of media survival in the history of mass media in Nigeria was dated to the earlier history of print media in Nigeria, the Lagos Weekly Record by John Jackson was able to survive until late 18th century in the midst of low patronage and stiff competition that characterized the earlier print media in Nigeria (Lawal, 2003).

Meanwhile, every organization has a hierarchy of people and job functions whether it is organic or intentional. For a business to operate efficiently and systematically, it needs a planned structure that fits the style, size and operations of the organization. Radio service requires the efforts of many people working at various sections for the overall single objective of providing services that can hold listeners tight to the station and sustain it over a long period of time, one with the aim of providing peoples’ attention to advertisers, who need such to sell their product and two, to generate money to pay workers and increase the fortune of the owner of the station with the profit made. To achieve the above however requires that people should be work from different department under a correct knowledge (Ogunsola and Olayinka, 2021).

However, this division of labour creates specialists who need coordination. This coordination is facilitated by grouping specialists together in departments. In a radio station, which requires the collaboration of all. Activities can be grouped according to function (work being done) to pursue economies of scale by placing employees with shared skills and knowledge into departments for instance, many notable professionals apart from journalists and programmes producers have roles to play in a radio station. It is therefore not a surprise seeing different professionals like seasoned Human Resource Persons, Engineers, and Accountants performing their professional duties in a radio outfit.

Basically, there are six (6) different basic departments in most radio station which work hand in hand for the actualisation of the corporate objectives of radio station. Among the departments are the following: Administrative, Programmes, News, Marketing, Engineering and Finance. The different department in a radio station has these departments listed as follow;

1) The News and Current Affairs Department, 2) The Programmes Department, 3) Engineering Department 4) Commercial Department, 5) Administrative Department and 6) Account Department

However, for the purpose of this paper, effort will be on marketing department in which generation of revenue is its responsibility. Hence, marketing department embarks on aggressive marketing drive that brings money to the station. It looks out for money on daily basis. Another function of this department is engaging most private organisations like hotels and airline operators in batter, where by their adverts will be aired, and the station can benefit from the services they provide (Ogunsola and Olayinka, 2021).

In short, this is the main base of a television revenue generation that bears the burden when the revenue drive diminishes. Seasoned marketing officers are the members of staff that perform the wonders in marking department. It is against this background that the study investigated the impact of advertisement revenue in sustaining the Nigeria mass media industry, using OSBC and Punch newspaper as case study.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The study is carried understand how commercial is an integral part of a broadcasting media station, to ascertain the concept of commercials and how it aid effective profit maximization in media houses. Mass media cannot survive without the availability of commercials or advertisement to generate revenue for the running of the mass media. Therefore, for mass media industry especially broadcast organizations to make money and to survive in the long run, they must have constant sources or streams of revenue.

Also, it is identified that geographical location do affect the number and price of commercials they generate on a daily basis. To state that commercial is an integral part of mass media. To ascertain the concept of “commercials” and how it aids effective profit maximization in media houses. To make it a known fact that “commercial” and media houses work hand in hand.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

 The main purpose of this research is based on the following;

  1. To examine whether advertisements/ commercials play an important role in mass media.
  2. To determine the significance is advertisement/ commercials in mass media.

1.4      Research Questions

  1. To what extent do advertisements/ commercials play an important role in mass media?
  2. Of what significance is advertisement/ commercials in mass media?

1.5     Scope of the Study

The study which investigates the impact of advertisements in sustaining mass media industry has been narrowed in scope to Osun State Broadcasting Corporation (OSBC). The selection of OSBC was due to inadequate time, lack of fund and other considerable logistics.

Thus, the geographical scope of this study was within Osun state. Also, the demographic factors of the respondents will carefully study before the administration of research instruments such factors include: age, gender, academic level e.t.c.

1.6       Significance of the Study

This study is intended at finding out the impact of advertisements on the overall survival of mass media industry. This study is also essential to serve stakeholders in mass media sector with the needed insight on the level t which advertisements or commercials influence the survival of media industry.

This research work will enable journalists, mass communicators, newscasters, news editors and other stakeholders to know the impact of advertisements in the overall survival of mass media industry.

More so, those who want to engage in similar study will find this material useful by serving as a reference point while it will add to the body of knowledge available on the impact of advertisement or commercials on mass media substance. Similarly, the findings of this study will serve as an additional literature on the topic for students and researchers who will like to carry out similar research while, the material will form bulk literature that exist in the field of mass communication, journalism, development journalism and media studies, etc

1.7      Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms operationally defined in the course of this study to increase the understanding of people who may want to use them.

Advertising: This refers to commercials, paid classified messages in newspapers, magazines, flyers, billboards and paid announcement over a radio or television to sell a product.

Mass Media: These are means of information dissemination to a wider audience such means is through radio, television, newspaper or magazine.

Sustaining Mass Media: This mean effort to ensure that mass media survive by able to pay the salary of workers and fulfill all statutory obligations.


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