ABSTRACT: The study investigated television in promoting Igbo Culture. The theoretical perspective of the study was anchored on the Cultural Norm Theory. This study was designed as a survey and the multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 350 respondents drawn from the four major towns in Anambra State namely Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi and Ekwulobia. The findings show that the people are exposed to ABS Television programming and that ABS Television Channels 24 & 27 have programmes geared towards the promotion of Igbo culture. It was also found that ABS Television Channels 24 & 27 do not give enough airtime to Igbo programmes. Based on these findings, the study concluded that ABS Television promotes Igbo Culture through its channels 24 & 27 located at Awka and Onitsha respectively partially. The study recommended television channels need to introduce more Igbo programmes and allocation of more airtime to Igbo programming. It also recommended that the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) should assist in re-directing our stations to this task of promoting the people’s culture.
Keyword: Promoting Igbo Culture
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.2 Background of the Study_________________________________________1
1.2 Statement of the Problem_________________________________________4
1.3 Objectives of the Study___________________________________________4
1.4 Research Questions _____________________________________________5
1.5 Significance of the Study_________________________________________6
1.6 Scope of the Study______________________________________________6
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms___________________________________6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Framework__________________________________________7
2.2 Review of Empirical Studies_____________________________________ 29
2.3 Theoretical Framework _________________________________________33
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Research Design_______________________________________________37
3.3 Research Method_______________________________________________38
3.4 Population of Study_____________________________________________39
3.5 Sample Size___________________________________________________39
3.6 Sample Procedure______________________________________________39
3.7 Instrument for Data Collection____________________________________39
3.8 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument______________________ 39
3.9 Data Collection Process_________________________________________40
3.10 Data Analysis_________________________________________________40
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Analysis: Demographic Information __________________________41
4.2 Data Analysis: Research Questions Related ________________________42
4.3 Discussion of Findings_________________________________________49
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of Research Findings_________________________________ 51
1.1 Background to the Study
Cultural propagation refers to the spread and dissemination of cultural elements, such as customs, beliefs, values, and traditions, from one group or society to another. This can occur through various means, including migration, trade, education, and communication. Cultural propagation can lead to the blending and fusion of different cultures, as well as the preservation and reinforcement of distinct cultural identities (Xirong, Xuanmeng, Xintian, Wujing and Junyi, 2011).
Meanwhile, it is pertinent to explain the concept of culture, culture is a reflection of how people live. The term “culture” refers to the accumulated body of information that a group of people has accumulated over generations through their individual and collective efforts, including knowledge, experience, belief, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notion of time, roles, and concepts of the universe (Nilson and Thorell, 2018).
Culture is the body of information that a sizable number of people share. According to Aguene (2003), culture is “all the attributes which group individuals together and distinguish them from the rest of the animal kingdom.” Culture is communication, and communication is culture.
Lawal (2000) cited in Edward (n.d), defined culture as “that complex whole of man’s acquisition of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and abilities acquired by man as a member of the society.” The aforementioned definitions demonstrate how culture separates humans from other animals. Additionally, culture contributes to a group’s identity because it makes it simple to identify the origins of one’s fellow human beings, as stated in the word.
Culture can also be described as the identity that allows a certain group of people to be recognized. Culture is a people’s entire way of life. Regardless of the amount of industrialization, high civilization, or low civilization, every society has its own unique way of life, which is referred to as culture. It is passed down from one generation to the next as a pattern or way of life. The kids are affected by it both technically and naturally by numerous socialization agents, television being one of them.
Without doubt, broadcast media particularly television plays an important role on the Nigeria culture compared to all other media of mass communication, this is because of the incomparable characteristics it possesses especially ability to combine audio with visual and being a major source of entertainment, in fact, no home seems completed without a television in this century (Olayinka, 2018).
Television plays a significant role in cultural propagation as a major agent of socialization by broadcasting content that reflects and influences societal values, beliefs, and customs. It has the ability to reach a wide audience and shape public opinion on various issues. Additionally, television can also introduce people to different cultures and ways of life through programming such as news, documentaries, and dramas. This can help to promote understanding and tolerance of diverse perspectives. However, it’s important to note that the content that is being broadcasted on television also reflects the values and biases of the creators and the network that is airing it (Olayinka, 2018).
Some of the cultural orientated programmes on TV include but not limited to discussion programme, talk show, quiz/debate, personality interview, live coverage of carnival, historical drama, indigenous cartoon. Some of the events on cultural propergation such as Abuja Carnival, Enugu State Carnival, New Yam Festival (Iwa ji, Iri ji ohuu or Ike ji), Iwa-akwa festival, Masquerades (Mmanwu) Festival, Igu Aro festivals, Ekpe festival. Inne Festival, Odo Festival, Igwa Nshi Festival, Ede festival, Ofala festival is also done in Anambra, Igbo Uturu cultural carnival taking place at Uturu, Abia state (Ogbonna, 2019). Other aspect given prominence attention is dressing, hair style, greeting, music, arts and dying, foods and drinks etc. It is against this backdrop that the research examines the role of television on cultural propagation of Igbo Culture.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It would appear that the Igbo people are inclined towards westernization. No wonder, parents now discourage their children from speaking Igbo language. It is a common saying amongst parents both literate and illiterate that their children do not speak nor understand Igbo language. These parents find it a thing of pride when their children speak only English language.
The Igbo people seem to be disenchanted with their language and culture and now generations of Igbo origin have completely forsaken their age long rich culture and norms. This mad rush for western tradition has prompted even the well-meaning Igbo people to standup and face the fight of restoring their rich cultural heritage. The actions of “Ohanaeze Ndi Igbo”, Pan Igbo Society, “Otu Umuada Igbo” and “Otu Subakwa Igbo” are a welcome development. The introduction of cultural carnivals, by state governments geared towards the promotion and enrichment of Igbo culture has indeed brought to light the grandeur of Igbo culture. The question now is, how far has the ABS Television done in promoting Igbo cultural heritage through its programming?.
Communication has been proved to be a veritable instrument for the propagation of culture. The media can help promote the people’s culture through the act of agenda setting. The media through their agenda setting help in creating awareness as to the need to give honour to culture. To this light, Anambra Broadcasting Service Television Channels 24 & 27 Awka and Onitsha respectively that are wholly owned and established by the state government, are established to service the entire state. It is anticipated that they would help in the transmission of Igbo culture from one generation to another. The extent of these television station in the performance of their expected roles is not encouraging. They have been ineffective in their duty as purveyors of Igbo culture.
This stations usually give less time to Igbo programmes but rather prefers airing foreign programmes and music. Often, these stations concentrate on commercially oriented programmes and in praise singing the government in power instead of embarking on those programmes that will promote the Igbo culture. In the light of the foregoing, this study evaluates the programming of ABS Television Channels 24 & 27 Awka & Onitsha in promoting the Igbo cultural heritage from the standpoint of its audience.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the role of television on cultural propagation of Igbo Culture while the specific objectives are:
- To evaluate the ways in which Anambra Broadcasting Service Channels 24 & 27 Awka and Onitsha respectively are helping in promoting the cultural heritage of Igbo people.
- To ascertain the extent to which there are programmes in ABS that are geared towards the promotion of Igbo culture.
1.4 Research Questions
In order to give direction to this study, the following research questions are hereby posed for investigation.
- Does ABS Television promote Igbo culture through its Channels 24 and 27 located at Awka and Onitsha?
- Does ABS Television has any specific programmes geared towards the promotion of Igbo culture?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study, hopefully will help to identify the roles played by the radio in propagating culture in Nigeria especially Igbo culture in South Eastern Nigeria State.
This study also intends to help in determining whether the programmes of radio have any effect on the Yoruba Speaking people.
The solutions and recommendations that would be made after this study will contribute to the growth and development of Igbo culture and norms and how it can be preserved.
Mass media organization will benefit from this work; it will enable them to pay more attention to cultural preservation and promoting programmes being one of the agents of socialization.
Igbo nation will through this study know the benefit of mass media in the area of socialization and teach their children what and when to watch television.
Government at all levels will benefit from this study especially by partner with community media to showcase and boost the cultural values of the society.
Finally, this study will be greatly useful to intending researchers; because it will serve as reference and as a guide to them.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study which examines the role of television on cultural propagation of Igbo culture has been narrowed in scope to ABS Television Channel 24 Awka Services, Awka and environs including Ekwulobia while ABS Television Channels 27 which is the relay station services Onitsha and environs including Nnewi. Thus, the geographical location of this study is Anambra State. The choice of both ABS Television Channels is due to their proximity to the researcher coupled with inadequate time, fund and other logics to cover more TV channels.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
For the purpose of clarity, some key concepts used in this study were defined. They are as follows:
Igbo: The inhabitants of the eastern part of Nigeria, which comprises Anambra, Enugu, Ebonyi, Imo and Abia, including the Igbo speaking areas of Rivers and Delta States.
Culture: The way of life. The aspect of Igbo people’s behaviour in terms of habits, interest, attitude, mode of dressing, greeting, language, music, festivals etc of Igbo people that are transmitted from generation to generation.
Promoting: Encouraging and advancing of something and in this study Igbo culture heritage.
Television Programming: The practice of organizing television programmes in a daily or weekly schedule.
INFLUENCE OF TELEVISION IN PROMOTING IGBO CULTURE
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