INFLUENCE OF ADVERTISEMENT ON THE CONSUMPTION OF COCA COLA

ABSTRACT; The research was on the thrust to examine the influence of advertisement on the consumption of Coca Cola with a study of Novena University students. The theories that lend support to this study were Cultivation Theory, Persuasion Theory and Advertising: Strong and Weak Theory. The research adopted the survey method as quantitative research and questionnaire was employed to elicit responses from the respondents that were drawn through the accidental sampling of 120 respondents. According to these theories, media is responsible for shaping or cultivating viewers’ perceptions of social reality. Findings show that the majority of the respondent often exposed to one form of advertisement or the other particularly from television, billboard and online media. They were highly exposed to Coca-cola advertisements in the recent time in the media mentioned above. Also, substantial numbers of the respondents (56.4%) were influenced by the Coca Cola advertisements campaigns while the crucial element that enticed respondents to most of the coca cola advert lies in the type of celebrity/model, copy structured and the visual effects. Similarly, drinking of Coca-cola by the Novana University students were partial as a result of their exposure to Coca cola drink advert, although, many of the respondents (72%) still prefer Coca Cola to other drinks to a reasonable extent. Findings further revealed that taste and price of Coca Cola drink are the quality that the majority of the respondents like most. It was recommended that advertising should be real and interesting so as to call and retain prospective buyers for the advertised product.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1       Background to the study

One function of the mass media which is becoming increasingly important in the modern world is the economic functions of advertising. The mass media perform this function for the people by bringing together buyers and sellers through advertisements.

Again, the world is fast becoming a common market place of ideas. Many multinational companies have come to realize that people have the same basic needs and desires. Consequently, they have heeded to calls for global marketing and can promote their goods and services using advertisements.

            Similarly, the essence of being in business by any commercial organisation is to produce for sales and profits. For an organisation to continue to be in business such organisation must generate enough sales from its products or services to cover operating costs and post reasonable profits.

            For many organizations, sales estimate is the starting point in budgeting or profit planning. It is so because it must be determined, in most cases before production units could be arrived at.

            In an industrial and free competitive market economy, where the interplay of economic variables dictates the market, the problem of survival of business becomes a very nightmarish one for producers and manufacturers. The singular desire of manufacturers becomes how to create awareness and market for their goods. Advertising is then one strategy that fulfils the desire completely. The desire to be buoyant in business and to increase profit has given advertisement an irrevocable reputation.

            Advertising is not undertaken by management just for fun or to keep products or services. It is principally involved in persuasion or advocacy even apparently just giving us information, using media that are paid for it to get through to the mass audience with the identity of the advertisers being clear. Advertising has the mandate to sell the advertiser’s goods and help the consumers to shop wisely.

            Similarly, of all marketing weapons, advertising has leading impact on viewers mind, as its exposure is much more felt. (Katke, 2007). Marketing mix has four subsets i.e. product, price, place and promotion. Advertising is a component of promotional mix, which is used to create awareness about products and services for taking purchase decisions (Akinrosoye, 2004). Advertisement evolves date back in the ancient times. Different societies used different types of symbols for the promotion of the products and services for attracting consumers.

No company can become a market leader unless they invest lots of their investment in promotional purposes (Hussainy et al., 2008). The major aim of advertising is to impact on buying behavior; however, this impact about brand is changed or strengthened frequently people’s memories. Memories about the brand consist of those associations that are related to brand name in consumers’ mind and that is why the major objective of consumer behaviour analysis is to determine the factors that influence consumers’ behaviour in a particular circumstance. Consumer behaviour analysis is helpful for advertiser to understand the behaviour of consumers in buying different situations.

            Advertising as a concept, can be defined as a form of communication through the media about product, services, ideas, personalities or organizations, paid for by an identified sponsor Alide in Okunna (2002: 99).

Bovee and Arens (1985) cited in Awofadeju (2013) gives a more widely accepted definition of advertising as the non-personal communication of information, usually paid for any usually persuasive in nature about products (goods and services) or ideas by an identified sponsor through various media. It is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise.

It is often a persuasive communication in that it tries to persuade the reader, the listener or the viewer to take to the sponsor’s own point of view and also to take some appropriate action. It is not personal or face to face communication rather it is directed to a group of people.

According to the understanding of Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) “advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor”.

The terms advertising was coined from the Latin word “advertere” which mean literally means to draw attention. This is when you are getting the evidence mind in a product, notifying or informing somebody/people of something.

It is against this background that the research examines the impact of advertising on the sales and consumption of Coca Cola among the Novena University students.   

1.2       Statement of problem

            Consumers are different personalities which age, sex, social background, culture, religion, academic background among other influence there need and taste. Some consumers by the virtue of their age or social status prefer bitter drinks to any sugary substances and vice versa and therefore influence their buying habits.

            Similarly, many advertisers and advertising agencies in dulged in illegal advertising such as exaggeration of what their product is capable of doing in order to drawn consumers to it while some advertisement adopted editing effect to present what their product cannot do.

            It is against this backdrop that the research examines the impact of advertising on the sales and consumption of Coca Cola among the Novena University students.

1.3       Research Questions

  1. To what extent do Novena University students expose coca cola advertisement?
  2. To what extent do advertisement of Coca Cola drink influence drinking habit of Novena University Students?

iii.        What appeals to Novena University Student in Coca Cola advertisements?

  1. Does drinking of Coca Cola among Novena students is as a result of their expose to advertisements?
  2. To what extent do Novena University students prefer Coca Cola Drink to other soft drink?
    • Objectives of the Study
  1. To what extent do Novena University students expose to Coca Cola advertisements?
  2. To what extent do advertisement of Coca Cola drink influence drinking habit of Novena University Students?

iii.        What appeals to Novena University students in Coca Cola advertisements?

  1. Does drinking of Coca Cola among Novena students is as a result of their expose to advert?
  2. To what extent do Novena University students prefer Coca Cola Drink to other soft drink?

1.5       Significance of the study

            This work though not exhaustive is quiet necessary at a time the media a awash with all forms of advertisement lure consumers.

            It will educate consumer on the best ways to respond to advertisement while advertisers will learn to understand the need to follow the ethics of the profession by avoiding advertisement that are subversive.

            Students of advertising will also find this work useful as it will expose them to various forms of media advertisements.

            Essentially, this study makes a significant contribution to the existing literature on the attitude of consumers towards lager products. The study will also be of great use to mass communication and marketing students who intend to take up similar studies.

1.6       Scope of the Study   

            This study is focused on the impact of advertisement on the sales and consumption of Coca Cola. The various ways consumers particularly Novena University students in Delta State have responded to advertisement.

            Therefore, the study is limited in scope to Novena University students, due to time, fund and other logistics. Yet any finding arrived at will be generalized on other higher institutions of learning in Nigeria.

1.7       Limitation to the Study

            Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constrains, this constrains pose a lot of limitations to this work.

  • Duration for the research work is relatively short.
  • Stress emanated from other academic activities is also another constrain.
  • Financial constraint poses another challenges.

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms.

Impact: This refers to the contributions or influence of advertisement on the consumption of coca cola.

Advertisement: These are all forms of promotions given to Coca Cola drink by the manufacturer in order to gain more consumers through radio, television, newspaper, website/social media.

Consumption of Coca Cola: These are Novena University students that are drinking Coca Cola


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