ABSTRACT: This study aims at finding out the influence of political cartoons on newspaper readers. Political cartoons for newspapers are indispensible. It is a visual medium that engages the audience, helps them understand and interpret the political, social and economic scene in the country and the world. The political cartoons lately have gained much importance and have raised standing in a newspaper. Political cartooning is essential for a newspaper to put out a point of view, which may differ from one of its own Agenda Setting Theory was used in this study. Cartoons that can help them understand the mood of the country benefit people. Quantitative research design was used in which cross-sectional survey method was adopted while the data collection instrument was questionnaire. Findings showed that the impact of cartoons is widespread on our lives and how we use them in our conversations, in our dealings even in the beliefs we have. Cartoons have over the years helped establish and sustained our attention to political satire and look at the lighter side of thing without reducing it to a laughing matter. It is therefore recommended that further studies on this problem should be based on psychological and sociological implications of cartoons.
Keywords: Political Cartoons
Table of Contents
Title page i
Table of contents vi-viii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the study 3
1.4 Research questions 4
1.5 Significance of the study 4
1.6 Scope of the study 4
1.7 Limitation to the study 5
1.8 Operational Definition of terms 5
2.0 Literature Review 6
2.1 Meaning of cartoons 6
2.2 Origin of cartooning 6
2.3 Historical background of Nigerian Press 9
2.4 Historical background of Punch Newspaper 10
2.5 Era of print Technology and Cartooning 11
2.6 What do Cartoonists do? 12
2.7 Importance of cartoons in Newspaper 12
2.8 Why cartoons in a Newspaper? 13
2.9 Cartoons and public perception 14
2.10 Editorials versus cartoons 14
2.11 Significance of Cartoons in Newspaper 15
2.12 Content of a cartoon 15
2.13 The uses and misuses of Political Cartoons 17
2.14 Different Goals and Means of Interest Groups 18
of a Generalized Newspaper
2.15 Controversies and Effect of Cartoons 18
2.16. Theoretical Framework 20
3.0 Research Method 23
3.1 Restatement of Research Questions 23
3.2 Research Design 23
3.3 Characteristics of study population 23
3.4 Sample size 24
3.5 Sampling design and procedure 24
3.6 Data collection and instrument 24
3.7 Validity & Reliability of Research Instrument 24
3.8 Data Collection Instrument 25
3.9 Data Analysis Procedures 25
4.1 Data presentation and Analysis 26-42
4.2 Discussion of findings 43-44
5.0 Summary, Conclusion & Recommendations 45
5.1 Summary 45
5.2 Conclusion 46
5.3 Recommendations 46
1.1 Background to the Study
Newspapers provide up-to-date information on local, state /provincial, national, and world issues. They are among the most widely-read periodicals that are available and accessible to the vast majority of people of all ages and walks of life in any community. Every category of reader can find some important, current, and interesting information in newspapers. Today’s newspapers use design elements that make information easily accessible to the reader. For example, important stories have large bold headlines, while graphics appear next to related stories while and cartoons are placed in a strategic part of the newspaper such strategic place include editorial page.
The history of the Nigerian press dates back to 1859, when Rev. Henry Townsend released Iwe Iroyin fun Awon Ara Egba ati Yoruba (The Newspaper for the Egbas and Yorubas) in Abeokuta. It was bilingual (published in both English and Yoruba). This was followed in 1863 by The Anglo African, edited by Robert Campbell. It carried both local and international news. With the increase in political and social activities in Nigeria, came a bimonthly newspaper used to aggregate public opinion on topical issues, the Lagos Times, which emerged on November 10, 1880. The Lagos Observer hit the newsstands fifteen months later, followed by The Eagle on March 31, 1887. Adolphus March started The Mirror at this time. Other newspapers began to emerge afterwards: The Nigerian Chronicle in 1908, and The Nigerian Pioneer, founded by Kukoyi Ajasa.
In 1926, the Nigerian Printing and Publishing Company started the Nigerian Daily Times. The West African Pilot of Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe was established in 1936. This brought an increase in national consciousness. Chief Obafemi Awolowo started the Nigerian Tribune in 1946.Most recently, the newspapers in circulation include: The Vanguard Newspaper, The National Concord, The Punch, The Guardian, This Day, Comet Newspaper, Daily Sketch, The Monitor, Alaroye, The Post Express, The Nigerian Herald, The National Compass, etc. However, cartoons are commonly used in the newspapers of this era which has now formed part and parcel of newspapers contents.
Cartoon has no specific definition over the time, modern usage refers to a typically non-realistic or semi-realistic drawing or painting intended for satire, caricature, or humor of any important issue. An artist who creates cartoons is called a cartoonist. The term originated in the Middle Ages and first described as a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, fresco, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, it came to refer to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers, and in the early 20th century and onward, it referred to comic strips and animated films.
A cartoon (from the Italian “cartone” and Dutch word “karton”, meaning strong, heavy paper or pasteboard) is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass or tapestry. Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes, to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days (giornate).Such cartoons often have pinpricks along the outlines of the design; a bag of soot was then patted or “pounced” over the cartoon, held against the wall to leave black dots on the plaster (“pouncing”). Cartoons by painters, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London and examples by Leonardo da Vinci, are highly prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons, usually coloured, were followed by eye by the weavers on the loom.
In modern print media, a cartoon is a piece of art, usually humorous in intent. This usage dates from 1843 when Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages, particularly sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminster. For the purpose of this study, effort shall be made on the influence of Graphical Cartoons in Newspaper Publication with a reference to the Punch Newspaper, Lagos. How does the Punch newspaper creatively use cartoons in their publication?
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Despite the fact that cartoons have formed part and parcel of the whole newspaper content since the time immemorial, yet many newspapers readers did not find something interesting about cartoons or its messages. While many cartoons were poorly structured and badly captioned which make the message weak. In this research, focus will be made on the role and benefit of cartoons especially the editorial page cartoons in newspapers.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To know the impact of cartoon in newspaper production.
- To study whether newspapers readers really like cartoons in newspapers.
1.4 Research Questions
- Do newspaper readers see cartoons as message?
- To what extent can cartoons be used to convey idea in newspaper?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study aimed at revealing to the entire world especially the media practitioners and audience the importance of cartoons in newspaper.
The study will further help media practitioners and students of Mass Communication how to tailor their cartoons in converging messages.
Lastly, the research is expected to draw the attention of other researchers, the need to further research on the other aspect which this study might not cover.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study has narrowed itself from the topic: The influence of Graphical Cartoons in Newspaper Publication with a specific focus on the Punch Newspaper, Lagos. However, findings of this research will be generalized on other media houses, since it is difficult if not impossible to visit the entire media houses in the federation.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Influence: It refers the impact of cartoons in newspaper
Graphical Cartoons: This is a humorous drawing used in newspapers to present idea in a funny way.
Newspaper: This is a periodic publication usually daily for dissemination of information to wider readers.