ABSTRACT: The research examined the impacts of digital camera on the practice of photojournalism using the Punch Newspaper and Tell Magazine as a case study. However, it is obvious that photographs play a very prominent role in magazine, newspaper and the world of print in general as it helps to draw the attention to the readers. However, the development of digital camera in this century has improved and enhanced the job performance of photojournalists which has translated to the quality newspapers and magazine locally and globally. Also, the most obvious difference between digital and film camera is the ongoing cost of having to buy and develop film. Film photographers are more deliberate with their shooting, whereas digital photographers need not worry about making ten versus a hundred exposures. Still, there are some costs involved in digital as well: higher camera prices, memory cards and possibly image editing software. It is confirmed that pictures taken by digital camera reduce photo processing and page planning to a larger extent while virus attack has been attributed as the major challenge facing photojournalists in using digital camera effective as it can corrupt whole of work with little or no remedy. It is therefore recommended that photo journalism should be taught separately in higher institution just like many institutions have separated marketing, public relations and advertising to enable students have broad knowledge of what the work is and the challenges ahead of them.
1.1 Background to the Study
Ever before this 21st century, photojournalists all over the world depend on manual camera with the use of camera films of 36 exposure who later develop it in a dark room, printed it using manual method like “See Saw System” and Tank-System”. However, advancement in technology in this century has resulted to the invention of digital camera that are using memory card, mini disk, hard-drive and so on, which enables photojournalists to use up to a million exposure and such exposure can be preview through preview leds or uploaded on computer set. This has enhanced magazine and newspaper page planning and design as it reduces stress, save energy, cost and time that would have been wasted in manual system.
Akinrosoye (2012) defines photojournalist as a reporter that gathers news but in picture form. The photojournalist captures scenes and event not in words but in a dramatic and eye-catching picture. Ewuola (2004) describes photojournalism as reporting of events through photographs. It means photo reporting just as news reporting is done with biro. He added that it is a process of reporting events with a photographic camera.
He is self-propelled and independent minded person who specializes in taken only expressive or communicative pictures. As it is known in the photography and print media sphere, communicative pictures are lively, exciting, action and spontaneous in nature that attract readers to newspaper or magazine stories or tell a story itself.
Olayinka (2013) writes that photo journalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of photographic material for publication) in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work is both honest and impartial while telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media.
In another development, print media are over the years compete and struggling to survive and basic tactic newspapers and magazines have often used to put message across is the use of photographs to draw readers attention. Photographs are used extensively by newspapers and magazines to convey information and advertise products and services.
The public wants to spend more time with pictures than text, and the immediacy and availability of photography makes that possible. Consumers want a photo with every story they read which create strong emotions since a photograph can tell an entire story. Camera on the other hand refers to an apparatus for taking photographs or moving pictures. It is a set of instrument used for producing photographs. Longman Family Dictionary (n.d) defines camera as a lightproof box having an aperture and lens for recording the image of an object on a light sensitive materials containing photographic film. This definition is faulty because it did not cover digital camera.
Therefore, Margaret Rouse (2007) writes that a digital camera records and stores photographic images in digital form. Many current models are also able to capture sound or video, in addition to still images. Capture is usually accomplished by use of a photosensor, using a charged coupled device (CCD). These stored images can be uploaded to a computer immediately or stored in the camera for to be uploaded into a computer or printer later. Images may also be archived on a photographic compact disc or external hard disk.
Most digital cameras have a LCD for viewing both images in the viewfinder and those in the camera’s memory. Kodak, Canon, Sony, Nikon, Olympus and several other companies make digital cameras. Also, digital camera instead of using film to capture the image, digital cameras use an electronic image sensor. The sensor converts the image to electrical signals stored on a memory card as bits of information known as picture elements, or pixels, the base element of all digital photographs.
Ever before this 21st century, photojournalists all over the world depends on manual camera with the use of camera films of 36 exposure who later printed it using manual method like “See Saw System” and Tank System” however, advancement in technology in this century has resulted to the invention of digital camera that are using memory card, mini disk, hard-drive and so on, which enables photojournalists to use up to a million expose and such exposure can be preview through preview lens on uploaded on computer set. This has enhanced magazine and newspaper page planning and design as it reduces stress, save energy, cost and time that would have wasted in manual system. However, the research examines the impact of digital camera on the practice and performance of photojournalists in this era of advanced technology
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Ever before this 21st century, photojournalists all over the world depends on manual camera with the use of camera films of 36 exposure who later printed it using manual method like “See Saw System” and Tank System” however, advancement in technology in this century has resulted to the invention of digital camera that are using memory card, mini disk, hard-drive and so on, which enables photojournalists to use up to a million expose and such exposure can be preview through preview lens on uploaded on computer set.
Graphics is a visual communication that conveys meaning in a message faster than words, making it possible to communicate even to the illiterate who might not ordinary able to understand writing words.
Akinrosoye (2011) observes that visual communication is one of the oldest and most effective means of transmitting meaning. An ancient Chinese proverb cited in Akinrosoye (2011) says “One picture is worth a thousand words” pictures are remembered longer than verbal messages.
This has enhanced magazine and newspaper page planning and design as it reduces stress, save energy, cost and time that would have wasted in manual system. Other problems are:
Manual photojournalists cannot report any event again once the camera film is exhausted. There are lots of stress in developing, cropping and editing photo with manual system. It is noted that digital camera can snap millions of pictures.
It is good to report spontaneous and action scenes as it operate automatically, photojournalists can preview it work before printing. Photo through digital camera can be resized, shape, colour, edit e.t.c at a dynamic ways. However, the research examines the impact of digital camera on the practice and performance of photojournalists in this era of advanced technology
1.3 Objectives of the study
- To ascertain whether photojournalists have adopted digital camera in their daily reportorial assignment.
- To examine the extent which photojournalists prefer digital camera to manual camera.
1.4 Research Questions
- Have photojournalists adopt digital camera in their daily reportorial assignment?
- To what extent do photojournalist prefer digital camera to manual camera?
1.5 Scope of the study
The study has been narrowed in scope to examine the place of digital camera on the practice of modern photojournalism with a focus on the Punch newspaper and Tell Magazine. It should be noted that the basic demographic factors of the staff particularly the reporters, editors, photojournalists, graphic artistes, production team among other will be study before the structuring and administration of research instrument such factors are gender, age, work experience, academic background among other things.
1.6 Significance of the study
Below are some of the beneficiaries of this research work otherwise called significance of the study. The significance of this study aims at revealing to the media practitioners particularly print media on the benefit of digital photojournalism to the practice of photojournalism.
It will assist the media practitioners to know the role photojournalism in keeping public informed through their camera. Students of mass communication and other related field will know the role of photographs and photojournalism in digital era to the magazine and newspaper production.
It will further enable other researchers to continue from the aspect which this study has not covered. Print media will see the need to equip their photo desk in order for photojournalists to contribute their quota to the quality reporting through their digital cameras.
1.7 Operational Definition of the Team
Digital Camera: It refers to a camera that encodes images and videos digitally and stores them for later reproduction.
Analogue/Manual Camera: A manual camera is one in which the user has to adjust the focus of the lens by hand and take the picture in non-automatic way.
Photojournalism: It refers to the act of reporting of news with camera.
IMPACTS OF DIGITAL CAMERA ON THE PRACTICE OF PHOTOJOURNALISM
WHAT TO EXPECT: (Chapter 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Questionnaire and References)