No.1 Mass Communication Project Topics and Materials


(Last Updated On: 22nd October 2023)

ABSTRACT: The essence of this study is to appraise the relevance of the print media as electioneering channels in Nigeria. The paper used Agenda Setting Theory to justify the significance of print media in determining what the electorate know about party candidates, manifestoes and other political activities such as voting process, rule etc. Survey method was adopted to generate the needed data while 120 copies of questionnaires were printed and administered to 120 respondents selected using the accidental sampling method to pick respondents within the three senatorial districts in Lagos state. The data analysis technique used was the frequency and percentage method with tables. The findings revealed that print media played a unique role in the governorship election in Lagos State on various political matters ranging from how to participate in politics, how to register as voters; how to cast their votes on election day and what to do and say after election e. t. c. The research recommends that newspapers should be free from few influential politicians to avoid turning the paper into tools of propaganda.



1.1       Background to the Study

The print media has long been a significant communication tool for disseminating information, shaping public opinion, and influencing political processes worldwide. In the context of Nigeria, print media plays a crucial role as electioneering channels, serving as a platform for political campaigns, debates, and information sharing during electoral periods (Okoye, 2018).  

Onabanjo (2017) stressed that during election seasons, political parties and candidates utilize print media extensively to reach a broader audience. Newspapers publish political advertisements, op-eds, and interviews with candidates, allowing them to articulate their agendas, policies, and visions for the nation.

During elections/political campaigns, equal time slots or opportunity must be allocated to each of the legitimate political parties and candidates. In the course of elections, messages that encourage goodwill and harmony among all the ethnic groups, religions, genders, cultures, languages, regions and communities should be broadcast (Popoola, 2020).

Media plays the role of watch-dog in reporting corruption, complacency and negligence. In a changing, competitive landscape, compliance to good governance has never been taken so seriously, as people demand more transparency from both the government and private sectors. Responsible practices from government, universal principles on human rights and the fight against corruption have assumed great importance (Olorunnisola, 2019).

A flourishing media sector enables people to make informed decisions, becoming more effective participants in society’s development. In a developing country like Nepal, the relatively low level of literacy, the variations in topography and limited access to electricity all make radio the most suitable medium to satisfy the information needs of the masses (Odusanya & Oyedemi, 2018).

However, Odusanya & Oyedemi (2018), a robust, independent and pluralistic media environment is crucial for good governance and the overall development of the country. Freedom of expression, free flow of information and fair reporting without government and commercial influences are accelerators of development. Therefore, the research intends to find out the role of print media as electioneering tool in Nigeria using 2011 governorship elections in Lagos state as a case study.          

Print media serves as a platform for informed public discussions on various political issues. Newspapers publish editorials and columns, providing analyses and insights into different candidates’ strengths and weaknesses. This enables citizens to make more informed decisions at the polls. Additionally, the print media plays a vital role in educating voters about the electoral process, including voter registration, polling locations, and voting guidelines (Olorunnisola, 2019).

Print media extensively covers election debates, political rallies, and other electoral events. Through detailed reporting and analysis, the print media enables citizens who may not attend these events in person to stay informed about the candidates’ positions and performances. By reporting on these events, the print media holds candidates accountable for their promises and actions (Popoola, 2020).

Despite its essential role, the print media in Nigeria faces various challenges. Financial constraints, limited access to information, and political interference are some of the significant hurdles faced by newspapers in the country. These challenges can hinder the media’s ability to provide unbiased and accurate coverage, impacting the quality of electioneering information shared with the public.

Journalistic ethics are crucial to maintain the integrity and credibility of the print media during elections. Journalists and editors must adhere to ethical standards, such as providing balanced reporting, fact-checking, and avoiding sensationalism. This ensures that the media plays a constructive role in promoting fair elections and an informed electorate (Onabanjo, 2017). It is against this background that that study investigating print media as electioneering channels in Nigeria with a focus on governor election in Lagos.

1.2       Statement of the Study

Ever since the arrival of first newspaper in Nigeria, it has been playing a very vital role from criticizing colonial dictators to the attainment of independence, till the military took over power shortly after independence and with the enthronement of democracy.

The research has attributed problems of apathy, indifference or alienated on the people towards political activities and programmes. Most citizens show no interest and do not contribute their opinions or information about political issues in general. Majority of the people show no interest, but few minority give attention to political issues that even concern them. In solving the problem, there is need for information, education and sensitization campaign that will help break people’s barrier to politics. It is against this background that that study investigating print media as electioneering channels in Nigeria with a focus on governor election in Lagos.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

     The primary objective of the study is to investigate print media as electioneering channels in Nigeria. However, the specific objectives are:

  1. To examine whether print media educate and sensitize electorate in participating in gubernatorial election in Lagos State.
  2. To study whether print media influence the voting patterns of electorate in 2023 governorship election Lagos state.
  3. ………….
  4. ………….
  5. …………

1.4       Research Questions

            In this study, an attempt was sufficiently made to answer the following questions.

  1. Do print media educate and sensitize electorate in participating in 2023 gubernatorial election in Lagos State?
  2. To what extent do print media influence the voting patterns of electorate in 2023 governorship election Lagos state?
  3. ………….
  4. ………….
  5. …………

1.5       Significance of the Study

  1. It is expected that, at the end of this study, it updated knowledge within the framework of the study. Particularly, it assists people on the usefulness of print media as electioneering tool in Nigeria.
  2. Media practitioners also gain from the research findings as it was expose them to what responsibilities media are to play in society.
  3. It also serves as reference materials for future researchers who may want to expand or explore on study relating to this work.
  4. This study was draw the attention of government and media to enlighten electorates especially women to participate in politics.
  5. Through the use of radio, television, films and motion pictures and print media, journalists was in their packaging of news reports and events development a sound political knowledge for the electorate.

1.6       Scope of the Study

            Although, the primary objective of the study is to examine the role of print media as an electioneering tool in Nigeria with a focus on 2023 governorship election in Lagos State, this cannot be effectively talked without considering the demographic factor of Lagos State. The work has been narrowed in scope due of the time, geographical locations, fund and other logistics, the study is narrowed down to Lagos State as a case study because it will be very difficult to study all the states in the country. Lagos state will be divided into three (3) Senatorial Districts.

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms

In this study, certain key words were be explained below:

Print Media: These are periodical materials for dissemination of information to a larger audience. It is a printed publication of either loose or binded sheets that containing news, advertisements, sport, and correspondence.

Politics: The activities involved in getting and using power in public life and being able to influence decision that affect a country or a society.

Election: Is the process through which voters choose their representatives and express

their preferences for the way that they will be governed.

Governorship Election: This is a state election where state governor is elected.


WHAT TO EXPECT: (Format: MS WORD, Chapter 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Questionnaire and References)

How To Get Complete Project Material

Related Project Topics:

Types of News

(Last Updated On: 4th December 2023) Concept of News News refers to information about current events or recently occurring developments, especially those reported by the

Read the full project / article