Abstract: The study examined the role of television as an instrument for educational development in Nigeria. Mass media especially television has been major the instrument of socialization and education in society through some educational programmes like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, Brain Test, Quiz T.V, Take a Step, Debates and many more apart from paying attention to government and non-governmental educational organization like Universal basic Education. The study was anchored on the Uses and Gratifications Theory and Social Learning Theory. A cross-sectional survey research method was adopted, also, questionnaire was adopted to elicit responses from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed in descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) with the aid of tables. From the findings of the study, it is safe to logically conclude that television has gone a long way in improving and promoting education in Nigeria and throughout the world because of its unique advantage of audiovisual transmission. The study recommended that the television industry should as a matter of fact create some decent educative programmes that will continue to promote the educational values of Nigeria while media owners should give prominence to news and activities on education while government activities and policies are to be given adequate attention.
1.1 Background to the Study
The use of television for promoting learning or as a supplement for classroom teaching continues to attract much attention because of the major role the television play in the contemporary society. The instructional materials which television provides in form of programmes are often used in the educational development of students in Nigeria (Joe, 2017) cited in (Nworgu and Nworgu, 2008).
This constant use of television for instructional purpose has led to the popularization of the abbreviation, ITV (instructional television) among scholars both within and outside the country. The television has also become the recognized story tellers of the world (Joe, 2017). Thus, the place of television in educational development and advancement cannot be overemphasized specially in today world even before this era. This fact was recognized by the then Western Regional Government in Nigeria when, in 1959, it started the Western Nigeria Television (WNTV).
One of the major reasons for the establishment of the WNTV was to use it as a surrogate teacher, particularly in rural areas where government at that time lacked sufficient teaching staff to service the free education policy of the Western Regional government (Olayinka, 2021) cited in (Folarin, 1998). Meanwhile, television has been used in Nigeria to supplement teaching in schools. It has contributed to the educational development of Nigerians (Duyile, 2007). Hence, there seems to be a strong relationship between education and television.
It should be pointed out that television can be used to teach arts, drama, poetry, and music thereby improving cognitive and intelligence abilities of students, and also bring inspirations to teachers, artists, and scientists into the lives of millions of students who may not have the opportunity to be members of the formal education population (Joe, 2017).
Television can also bring learning and knowledge to a huge number of people and thus becomes a motivation for increase in actual enrollment in many Nigerian schools. All these potentials, which abound in television, could be used to promote learning in schools.
But regrettably, the potentials have not been fully utilized, the reason is not far-fetched. Many of the educational and instructional programmes in Nigerian television stations tend to have audiences that are merely passive viewers. They are passive because little contact is usually made between the producers of educational programmes and the audiences (Okunna, 1999).
It should also be recalled that before the Covid-19 pandemic, education (academic education) was limited only to classrooms in most cases where teachers and students can identify each other, but this is no longer the case as students and teachers meet via television and teachers do not necessarily know the students and vice versa (Olayinka, 2021). No wonder television has a unique position as a socializing agent; in fact, it is a very potent socializing agent for reaching a big varied and widely scattered audience, typically children and adolescents, among whom secondary school students fall.
Television’s audio-visual qualities elevated it above other mass media. Television not only transmits information and messages, but also provides visual representations of government activities and non-governmental agencies such as the Universal Basic Education Programme, quizzes, debates, and other educational and scholarly activities that benefit students. Recent television innovations have had a significant impact on the educational sector, particularly teaching; television resources in instructional delivery in schools, allowing for more efficient classroom instruction.
Because teaching and other educational shows on television are generally more effective than radio. In this context, the study looked into the influence of educational television programmes on secondary school students’ intelligence in Port Harcourt, specifically among students at Norwegian International School and Greenoak International School (private), Government Secondary School, and St. Mary’s Catholic Model High School (public).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It should be stated that the majority of the programmes that students are exposed to on television are dedicated to entertainment and amusement. Television, on the other hand, is an attractive medium for educational and instructional programmes due to its audio-visual aspect. There are lots of studies on the effect or impact of television on children/adolescents, particularly television violence or television in general (Hadiza and Shamsudeen, 2021; Imhanobe, 2019). While there are a few empirical studies on the role of television in disseminating educational programs to students.
It is against this backdrop that this research is on the thrust to investigate the role of television as an instrument for educational development in Nigeria particularly among students….
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To determine the extent to which Port Harcourt secondary school students are exposed to educational television programmes.
- To ascertain the extent to which education television programmes boost secondary school pupils’ intelligence.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent are Port Harcourt secondary school students exposed to educational television programmes?
- How much have educational television programmes helped secondary school students boost their intelligence?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will benefit mass media outfits and television programme department on the need to include in their broadcast running order some programmes that can promote and improve education such as quiz, debate, brain test etc on secondary schools e.t.c.
Secondary schools authority will through this research discover the best way to use television and the benefits capable of acquiring especially secondary school students.
Government will also see the importance of mass media especially television in achieving educational objectives.
Future researchers and students will find the material relevant as it will form bulk literature that exist in the field of mass communication and journalism etc that they can lay hands on when carrying out research related to or similar to this.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study which investigates the role of television as an instrument for educational development in Nigeria was narrowed in scope to …………………………………………………………..l. Therefore, the geographical scope of this study shall be within Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
The study will focus attention mainly on four selected secondary schools in Port-harcourt i.e ……………………………………………………………………………………………… The schools are selected because of its proximity to the researcher as it will be difficult if not impossible to study all students across Port-Harcourt due to the limited time available for this study.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Role: In this research, role means the influence or the impact that educational television programmes have on secondary school students in Port Harcourt.
Educational Television Programmes: In this research, educational television programmes are programmes designed to teach students such as Take a Step, KKB shows, Once Upon a Time, Super Smart Kids and Cowbellpedia etc.
Educational Development: It refers to the promotion of educational in the society which including knowledge acquisition by an individual through mass media especially television broadcasting.