In all phases of Mass Communication broadcasting, has become one of the strongest mediums; this is so because it influence everyone as individual in the society.
It has been accepted that broadcasting is a powerful and an effective instrument for achieving goals, which includes education, information, mobilization, and shaping mature public opinion. This influence is so great that, hardly will you see an individual in this world who has never been touched by programme dissemination and development of information otherwise known as PUBLIC ENLIGHTENMENT programme to the general public which necessitate
orderly and people oriented programming.
Public enlightenment programme comprises of information on developmental programmes such as Agriculture, Health, Social Activities like sport, culture, Tradition, Social Amenities, Human Relations, family planning to cut it short, in order to improve the life style of the public in general.
It must be seen as two-way mechanism circulating knowledge and information between the people with the government and among various communities. In order to fulfill the role effectively, research concerned with intelligence is institutionalized in the programme
In “Saturday Special”, this is a mixed grill of sports, news features, interview of guests and musicals.
These are given to sensitize the public on general issue of public interest to collect and analyse their opinion with aim of feeding the government responses, Also, individual contributions to programmes highlights and their analytical inputs help in resolving salient public issues, which have been generating controversy.
The public oriented nature of “Saturday Special” programme requires involvement of both human and natural resources. This is because of the diversified nature of the programme and logistics which involve and maintaining continuous patronage through sending in questions and comments by participants on phone.
The research notice as at the tune of writing this project is that almost all the public enlightenment programmes transmitted on BCOS and some other stations involve meeting guests who serve as the contributors. This is done because of the nature of the enlightenment programmes as they are to educate the audience and to improve the life style of the public in general.
The public enlightenment programmes could be a segment of people and the general public, which can be seen in same programmes such as Aye Obinrin, Obelawo and youth health.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The history of broadcasting in Nigeria could be traced back to December, 1932, when a receiving station was established in Lagos. However the first Radio Distribution station (RDS) in Nigeria was inaugurated in 1935, and it stated operation in Ibadan in 1937. The Nigeria Broadcasting Services (NBS) which later changed its name to National Broadcasting Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) established, 1951.
In October 1959, then Western Nigeria Government set up the Western Nigeria Television (WNTV), which was the first Television station in Africa, now Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) owned by the Federal Government it began its commercial operation in Ibadan. In may 1960.
The Western Nigeria Government partnership with an oversea Radio fusion company and began its commercial Radio Operation. The station was later identified to be (WNTV WNBS). Having set up the Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation Television, a number of state in Nigeria set up wither television or Radio Station or both.
Radio and Television epidemic has spread all over the world and have become part of human existence.
1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF BROADCASTING CORPORATION OF OYO STATE (B.C.O.S)
After the creation of three new state from the defunct western state of Nigeria in 1976, the emergence Oyo State of Nigeria in 1976, the emergence of Oyo State of Nigeria established the Broadcasting corporation of Oyo State to transmit Radio telephone of sounds which was popularly known as the radio. Oyo situated at Orita Bashorun and with he FM stereo station at Map Hill, Ibadan.
The station was Oyo state in 1984 during the military regime of
Government Oladejo Popoola (Lt. Col) who set up an administration panel to look at the activities of both TSOS and Radio O-Y-O. The council finally resolved that the station should be merged together and it was given a new name Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo state (BCOS).
“The merger took effect from 25th October, 1984 and since then backed up with an edict cited as the broadcasting of 0yo state amendment edict, 1985”.
A new board of Directors was constituted for BCOS by the military Governor of 0yo state and was officially and publicly announced on December, 1984.
1.3 WHAT SATURDAY SPECIAL IS ALL ABOUT
“Saturday Special” is a public enlightenment programme of the
broadcasting corporation of Oyo state, BCOS, was first transmitted in 1982 and was the first star programme reflecting innovative news style by the station.
“Saturday Special”, a news magazine programme meant to reflect current political, Social and economic event as well as mirror society responsiveness to public affairs and issues. These programmes cover various issues of the day relaying developments in local and global wise and bring to light, appropriate steps necessary to maintain the social well being of the citizenry “Saturday Special” places emphasis on telephone conversation for public anticipation. This is in order to encourage the growth of telephone technology within Nigeria and to promote immediacy and intimacy between the speakers and
callers where feedback is sought.
As an informative enlightenment and entertainment programme ‘Saturday Special” begin to focus on major news on local and global occurrences during the week, relaying the issues affecting the social well being of the people and sporting events like wrestling, boxing, soccer e.t.c to enable people relaxed after the weeks work pressure and tension.
It is people oriented programme as members of the public have unrestricted access to the programme contributions is not edited and issue of the day are publicly discussed.
“Saturday Special” goes on air every Saturday between 7:00am and 1O:OOam. During three hours of transmission, it covers wide area of specification Like newspaper review summary of the major local news event personality interviews e.t.c.
Twenty minutes around the world, a package global news report which is to seep the audience abreast of the global activities and finally sport segment which comprise of report representation (sport) and interview are transmitted as part of the highlights of the programme.
A guest invited, as a professional in a particular field whose activities directly or indirectly affects the social-economics well being of the audience to discuss vital issues of the day.
The selection of guest is a collective duty of staff in the programme department, and to consider the magnitude of the responsibility of the guest to invite his/her relevance to the particular discuss of the day. The guests are given at east a month notice through an invitation letter and the reply is sought to verify the readiness of the guests to feature on the programme.
The programme has unique responsiveness as the viewers can see and recognize the quest and read meaning through the face of the quest.
1.4 AIMS OF THE RESEARCH
This is meant to examine the magnitude of the public enlightenment Programmes with “Saturday special” of the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State a case study on the viewers.
It is earned out (Research) with a view to broaden the scope of knowledge of the electronic viewers to attach a greater level of importance to public enlightenment programmes regardless of the type and format it takes.
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
It has been observed that the audience of public enlightenment programmes has misconceived the reason for the initiation, execution and transmission of such programmes thereby having probably little or no effect on the audience.
This has made the little interest the audience for the programmes that falls on this type i.e. public enlightenment to be reduced and made their participation retarded. Thus, it is imperative to reveal the ways through which the problems could be solved if it is found to be true.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The study tends to seek answer to the following unanswered questions:
- Are the people aware of the public enlightenment programmes on BCOS Television?
- Has there been any effect of the transmitted public enlightenment programmes of BCOS on the attitude and behaviors of the audience?
- Are there enough professionals to handle various public enlightenment programme which could affect the level of information dissemination?
- Has there been any increase or boost in the Nigeria economy through public enlightenment programmes?
• What impact does public enlightenment programmes on audience have on Nigeria image?
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Marshall (2000) claims that the electronic media by their inherent characteristics have introduce fundamental qualitative change to societies and made possible the increase involvement participation of people across the boundaries of class of age and group through the various public enlightenment programmes.
It should be noted that the ability to television to overcome the dual barriers of distance and illiteracy make it a medium of desiring for special interest.
This now limits the study to Saturday special” a public enlightenment programme aired on the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State. Orita Bashorin is selected to limit the study especially to the elites living around Orita Bashorun Ibadan as a result of limited time and resources available for the project.
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Since the study is to examine what the impact of public enlightenment with “Saturday special” as study is having on the audience, the study will be of great advantage to the government as it provides opportunity to know what extent the public view its various implemented programmes toward improved standards of living and social well being of the people.
These taking appropriate steps to adjust and facilitate a readiness to serve the public wholeheartedly.
The study is significant that, it will enable the electronic media to know what programme interests the audience and what made them patronize a particular public enlightenment programme and also help them to make positive decision about which developmental programmes should be transmitted.
To prospective researcher however, the study will in principle buttress or discard some conflicting views on the effect of public enlightenment programme in the society.
1.9 TERMS TO BE DEFINED OPERATIONALLY
For the purpose of this research and clear grasp the following terms used will be operationally, defined as following:
1. AUDIENCE: These are the set of people who listen to radio and watches television.
2. IMPACT: This is used in this study refers to effect or influence of the programme under reviews on the viewer or society as a whole.
3. ELECTROMC MEDIA: This comprises of radio, Television e.t.c used for transmission.
4. PROGRAMMES: This is any item placed on air by radio and television station.
5. PUBLIC ENLIGHTENMENT: Events broadcasting on radio or television giving more knowledge to people in genera! and to free the public from ignorance, misunderstand or false beliefs on public enlightenment events.
6. TRANSMISSION: This refers to the dissemination of information from radio/television with the use of some electronic gadgets.
Extraction from the full project.