1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Encyclopedia Americana (1988: 472) defines computer as a device that automatically performs calculation and sorts files, edit or otherwise process information.
From the above definition it can be deduced that computer is a machine that process
information automatically. It also describe computer as an automatic machine that does the work assign to it automatically through processing.
Rovers William L. Ct al (1980) write that “Broadcast stations are heavily on the use of computerized information system. Computers are central to most video editing systems, character operators, word processor, graphics systems scheduling and billing systems, and data retrieval systems. News roomrely almost exclusively on computer for writing and editing news copy familiarity and the ability to type well is mandatory.
The above statement stated clearly that for any broadcasting station to stand up to
the challenges of the modem world, it must be computerized for computer is highly useful
in all aspect of broadcast starting from gathering news writing, news editing and to the
point of casting or reading the news.
Something was discovered, necessitating the writing of project. It was discovered in the studio of Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State, Ibadan.
Their T.V station has a two camera studio. There are varieties of sets for different programme in it. The set tells in one of the programmes in which they are used for. For instance, the set has balance sales drawn on it which indicate balance and fair judgment.
A monitoring set is placed in the front of both the announcers and programmers. This is to make them know what is on air. The monitoring set is not meant for camera men; they only use is to know if the T.D is on erroneously, the camera men have taken it as the cameras view finder.
The studio has a number of lights. However, Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (BCOS) has a bad lightening system. The lights there are not enough for the studio. This in turn makes a poor recording and transmission. The studio is adequately given acoustic treatment making it impossible for noise from outside the studio to come in.
Modern camera, computer and drapery are conspicuously absent in the studio which makes it an outdated one. The talk back of the studio is poor. The camera men have made it an habit not to put on their headset, this usually leads to ineffective communication between the transmission directors (TD) ands the camera men.
There are two control rooms apart from the studio. The first is the audio control room while the second is a place where visuals are mixed in his reports titled: student industrial work experience. Oyebode (2002:4) narrates that”…. When I resumed work, the drama I watched that day was amusing. The drama was between the transmission director and the audio personnel. Transmission director usually inform the person in charge of audio console what to do when a program is on air, that day I heard the technical director saying “fade out, V.RS audio. He was telling the person in the audio room to fade out just concluded program and fade in the next program which is on V.H.S and give it audio.
The event narrated above is a drama indeed because it is unprofessional for transmission director to shout in the studio. It could have been easy for everyone in the studio if computer has been used to programme all that being broadcast. Hand is used to change caption for camera man, and sometimes the hand of the person changing the caption appear on the screen at home. All this would not have come up if computer is in place.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Following the nation wide guest for timely information, the number of broadcasting station in Nigeria has increased. The increased in turn lead to competition among the
stations. Hence, each proprietor has been working tirelessly to make sure that his station be it government or private ones become the choice of people, for effective and efficient broadcast make good and reliable broadcasting station. In a nutshell, is to examine the impact of computer application in broadcasting.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main purposes of this work are as follows:
- To identify how computer can contribute to the clearness of audio and visual received by audience at home.
- To determine the benefit to be derived by the corporation and its audience from application of computer in the television studio.
- To identify the importance of computer in broadcasting worldwide
- To achieve efficiency in the method of broadcasting in BCOS so that good quality broadcast can be guaranteed.
- To identify when to change the system mentioned as a result of ever-changing information technology in order to meet up with challenges of the future.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The research questions are stated below:
- Does computer contribute to the clarity of audio and visual signal received at home?
- What benefit can be derived by the corporate and its audience from application of computer in the television studio?
- Is computer important in broadcasting worldwide?
- What kind of method of broadcasting can BCOS use to achieve efficiency and good quality broadcast?
- When can the system mentioned be changed in order to meet up with challenges.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Audience: to get information through the computer system and to know how to transact and dissemination of information through the computer software.
Staff: to know the important of computer operation in broadcasting studio and to know knowledge about different software and their function.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of this study, the scope of this study is limited to Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (BCOS), Orita Basorun, Ibadan and the research project is directed to the impact of computer application in Broadcasting.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Below are some factors limiting the study:
1. Limited interview: The interview conducted was limited to Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State and the fact that computer system is not in full operation in the studio, many of the people interviewed could not give expert knowledge of the system.
2. Other broadcasting stations were not visited. As a result, the lapse discovered were limited to Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State studio.
3. Financial construct: The money available for me to carry out the work i limited: Therefore, the level of interview conducted and visitation to relevant places like libraries, computer centers and communication centers were limited.
4. Frequent changes in computer system may render the system mentioned in this work absolute in the nearest future. This is because the broadcasting organization would have works and duties to perform. As a result, its computer system life cycle would be old computer systems with new ones.
5. Time constraint: Time constraint may hinder quick release and publication of the above reasons, it has become necessary to limit this study to BCOS television studio’
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Anyone who speak to an audience through an electronic medium: radio or T.V transmission over the public airwave, cable or other close circuit audio or video distribution or electronic amplification, in an auditorium or theatre
ACOUSTIC: – Treatment given to the wall or studio to prevent noise coming from outside the studio from entering into it.
TALK BACK: – The microphone located in a control room that allows the person in control room to speak to other production areas.
BROADCASTING: – The business of making and sending out radio and television programs.
COMPUTER: – This is the equipment used in studio to do many task.
STUDIO: – A room in television or radio station where announcers use to perform their activities.
RADIO VISION: – A place where both the radio station and the television station is built closely together.
ON AIR: – When program is going on, which can be receive by television or tl vc
DRAPERY: – Cloth or clothing hanging in loose fold inside television studio which ‘w’S background the program.
BEAD SET: – An apparatus wear on head by camera man to hear what the person in control room The opposite of fade out.
CONSOLE: – A visual or audio control board.
FADE OUT: – Using a fader or potentiometer to gradually reduce the sound until it no longer can be heard.