EFFECT OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION ON ADVERTISING MESSAGE ON BUYING BEHAVIOUR (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC, LAGOS)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0            INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYUnilever Nigeria Plc is a contradictory business considering that, although organization can normally be the target for many criticisms. It continues to grow interns of sales levels and brand equity.

Furthermore, Unilever Nig Plc has increased its efforts towards environment and social causes and is investing even further on training and educating employees. all these changes the image of the company as a whole Unilever Nigeria Plc is currently manufactures and distributes many brands across it’s global network of companies in Europe. Africa and Asia. Its international policy has focused it’s effort on specific geographical markets which demonstrate the potential for growth. it develop relevant high quality and innovative products through having developed and deep understanding of the needs and aspiration of local consumers. These are distributed via the class networks that have been established over its many years of global trading.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The theory of advertising has been widely studied due to the importation of these concepts to consumer behaviour and to the overall business performance.

The theoretical of consumer behaviour is primarily that of behavioral science. It is an intriguing complex field of enquiry that studies human behavior in the consumer role.

There is no single theory of human behaviour that is generally acceptance and perhaps, there will never be yet, we have range of theories which are capable of improving our ability to protect behaviour.

The usually accepted discipline of behavioural science includes anthropology, economics, political science, psychology and sociology. Although, all these have made important contribution to our knowledge on how and why people act the way they do, the two that have provided the most direct assistance to advertisers, sociology and psychology. The later is the study of human as an individual while the former is the study of human in relation to the society (Adediran, 1987). Both view points are important and area combined in social psychology.

Social psychology is concerned with the inter-relationship between the behavior of individuals the behavior of social groups and the operation of social organization (Adediran 1987). The scope of investigation in social psychology include among other, the dynamic of human behavior, perception, propaganda, public opinion, the study and measurements of attitude dynamic never create goodwill or social group. As a matter of fact, many among mentioned areas are vita to planning of effective advertising. For widest sense advertising is a branch of social science, it is very important for advertiser to understand and employ some techniques of social psychology because they seek so persuasive and influence the action of the society. Study of appeal requires knowledge of psychology as well as the various buying motives. The appeal made in advertising may be specifically directed either to the public in general or to a group of person depending upon the nature of product or services to be advertised.

The appeal must be understandable and presented according to the nature of what the product will serve; complicated reasoning should be avoided because any advertisement, which is purpose, is generally ineffective. The word appeal provides the due something that touches the consumer directly without his having to exercise his mind to find out what the advertisement tries to communicate to him

The advertisement is not only to attract and hold the intension of the readers but also to create an interest and desire to buying in him or acquire about the advertised article for this appeal to be as much knowledge as possible to human nature instinct reasons, sentiments, habit, ideal e.t.c are required

Therefore the advertiser need to study carefully the class of person to whom he wishes to appeal and obtain a favorable response from them by skillful use of the fact that advertising must be persuasive, the claim also is true. In other words, Honesty is the best policy in advertising. Any advertiser who advertises inferior products and makes false presentation can never create Goodwill for himself and broadcast by dissatisfied consumer and high business will automatically decline.

1.3     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.       What factor prompt consumer buying Habit?

2.       How does Unilever Nigeria plc rate their advertisement?

3.       What is the effect of advertisement on consumer behaviors?

4.       Which of the Unilever product has the highest sales volume?

5.       How do consumers perceive Unilever product in Nigeria.

1.4     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Ho.    There is not correlation between investment or organization on advertising and all other marketing programmes and sales

Hi.     There is correlation between investment or organization on advertising and all other marketing programmes and sales

Ho.    Effective advertising programme urge consumers to buy what they do not really need.

Hi.     Effective advertising programme urge consumers to buy what they do really need.

1.5     RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Defining the main objectives of any research is the first step into developing the structural work, these objectives will provide an important support to the overall investigation.

The objectives of this work therefore are:

a.       To examine how the company has implemented and carried out its advertising message to the consumers.

b.       To know the impact of advertisement on consumer buying behavior.

c.       To enable consumers to determine the quality of a product in an advertisement.

d.       To enable buyers to create interest in an advertised product.

The secondary objective of this research work is to carry out a research work on approved topic by the department in partial fulfillment of the         requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma in Marketing Management.

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of the study is that both the consumer and the organization should know the effect of advertising, message and the importance or impact of advertisement to achieve their various aim and objectives. The organization should know that they are to meat the demand of their consumers through provision of necessary product at any point in time.

The consumers also should work forward to derive the best satisfaction from the product which motivates the consumers to promote the image of the company.

1.7     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This project will examine the effect of advertising on buying behavior from consumer’s perspective. The researcher has decided to find out if the effect of advertising has really been a useful tool in developing a company and satisfying consumers.

1.8     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study focuses on understanding the impact of marketing mix on the survival of business using Nigeria bottling company, as a case study. To be able to make meaningful information I must pay day to day visit to the company but with the present economic situation of the company at large, I found it very difficult to get transport fare to the company as a result of this I was unable to pay much visit to the company and other relevant places. Because of the constraints, its was not possible for one to go carry out the study of this nature upward of six month would have been required

The limited time no doubt prevented me from having extensive close views of relevant document in the company. To some extent, this problem as also affected the project because the top management of the company refused to release some of the relevant document which should have aided to proper completion of this project work fear of disclosing official secret of confidence within the establishment.

1.9     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

OUR HISTORY

Unilever Nigeria plc, was incorporated as lever Brothers (West Africa) Ltd on 11th April, 1923 by Lord Lever hulme, But the company’s antecedents have to be tracked back to his existing trading interest in Nigeria and West Africa generally, and to the fact that he had since the 19th century been greatly involve with soap manufacturing company, and is today one of the oldest surviving manufacturing organization in Nigeria.

After series of mergers/ acquisition, the company diversified into manufacturing and marketing of foods, non stapy detergents and personal care products. This merger/acquisition brought in Lipton Nigeria Ltd in 1985, chees rough ponds industries Ltd in 1988. The company changes its name to Unilever Nigeria pl in 2001 Unilever Nigeria plc is a public Liability company quoted on the Nigeria stock exchange since 1913 with Nigerians currently having 49% of equity holdings.

1.10   DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.       Brand: – A type of product manufactured by a company under a particular name.

2.       Awareness: – Having knowledge of something

3.       Persuasive: – Ability to induce action or belief

4.       Dissemination: – Broadcast of an idea or message on a large scale to make it reach a wide audience.

5.       Informative: – Is the act of impacting knowledge

6.       Perception: – Is the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the sense.

7.       Canalization: – Is a measure of the ability of a population to produce the same phenotype regardless of variability of

its environment

8.       Detractor: – Means to belittle the worth of something.

9.       Consumerism: – Is a social and economic order that encourages the purchase of goods and service

10.     Cognitive: –  The term is used to describe the feeling of discomfort that result from holding two conflicting beliefs.

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