Example of a Complete Project Table of Contents

In response to the questions from clients and numerous young researchers especially at the undergraduate level that what constitute a research project outline. i.e what each chapter entails and should contain on average. Below is an outline of the presentation of a completed work (degree project) CHAPTER ONE: Introduction General description of the area of study Problem analysis (Problem Statement)   Purpose of study (Objectives of the Study) Relevant research questions Statement of the hypothesis Delimitation (scope) of the study Significant of the research problem and the justification for investigating it.   Definition of (Unfamiliar) terms / conceptS References, Chapter …READ MORE …

The Research Proposal: Heart of the Research

          Student of masters by thesis and doctoral students know that a research proposal successfully defended is a thesis or dissertation half completed. The research proposal for masters by thesis and doctoral dissertation are in three chapters. These are: Chapter 1-Introduction Chapter 2- Review of Literature Chapter 3-Methodology             If the students successfully defend the proposal then these three chapters will constitute the first three chapters of his entire work. So, research proposal successfully defended is no wasted effort. In the behavioral sciences, doctoral research proposal can run into a hundred or more pages and if successfully defended they serve …READ MORE …

Qualities of a Good Research

            Before a research can be adjudged ‘Good’, it must be in line with the universal standard and the standard is embedded in the main characteristics of a research. Controlled, Empirical, Systematic, Analytical, Objective, replicated, cyclical, and statistical analysis Some of the qualities of a good research are highlighted: The research procedures used should be described in sufficient details to permit another researcher to repeat the research.   The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. Greater confidence in the research is expected if the researcher is experienced and …READ MORE …

Data Collection Method and its Importance to Research

When carrying out research of any kind, one important thing to note is the type of data that is required for carrying out the research. Sometimes, it could be the primary data or secondary data etc.  Data is seen as raw facts that are processed for information i.e data are facts that are meant to be refined. There are qualitative or quantitative data. Sometimes, both the data and information are often used interchangeably. In research, data are collected from respondents, participants, the content of the newspapers, mere observation, interview, music, video, books etc depend on what the researcher is seeking. …READ MORE …

PUBLIC RELATIONS COPY AND ITS NECESSITY

Introduction             It should be recalled that public relations is a deliberate planned and sustained efforts to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and it publics. It means that an organisation, individual or institution has so many publics that it deals with at one time or the other and this publics can be reached through different platform depend on the issue, problem or condition necessitate the communication or interaction.             For the fact that public relations has to communication to the organisation, individual or institution public it does this by writing or present it by spoken whichever way …READ MORE …

Historical Overview of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation (OSBC)

            The journey of what is today called Voice of the West, with four stations (two radio stations and two television stations), began from the snippets. It began on Monday, August 27 1991 when the then Military President of Nigeria, General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida (retired) announced the creation of Osun State. To indigenes of the new State who were serving at the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (BCOS), 27th of August 1991 was the outcome of what everyone had expected.             However, it became inexcusable that they had to move to Osun State to establish the State’s owned media outfits. …READ MORE …

Relevance of Grunig and Hunt to Public Relations in New Media Research

One of the popular models of public relations is one by two scholars Grunig and Hunt and the model is called Grunig and Hunt Model. In this post,  I am going to show you how this model can be related or used to explain public relations and social media usage in this era. i.e how Grunig and Hunt model is applicable to the place of Public relations in this era of New Media, it will also show how  be used for other public relations communication research especially when laying emphasis on Two way communication as justified by the Two-Way Symmetric …READ MORE …

What students must know before starting their project?

Researchcage

There are so many things student needs to know or familar with before starting their project which is important to their overall success and amount of time spent. However, understading this will help you. What idea do you find interesting to develop your problem around. How much do you know about the topic or problem? How much has been done on the idea How fresh or hot is the idea? Can the idea interest others especially your supervisor? Can you finish the research on time? Where would I get materials for my study e.g library, online etc Who is my …READ MORE …

Sampling and Sample Size in Research

“Can you study over 170 million Nigeria population in a research?” NO “Can you content analysis all Nigeria newspapers, all editions in just a research?” NO “Can you study all Nigerian Students in just a study?” NO Why? Because the population is too much coupled with time to complete the study apart from fund and personnel to achieve the task. Therefore, you need to employ sampling technique to get part of the population to study and this part represent the population  Is that clear? Let go…             Sampling is one of the frequently mentioned terms in research especially social science …READ MORE …

HOW TO GET THE BEST FROM YOUR SUPERVISOR

“No one is competent enough to be his own editor no matter his reputation in writing; his work must benefit another person’s look”  The quotation above is a pointer to the fact that every student needs at least a lecturer to supervisor his/her thesis. In some cases, students have to find supervisor before enrolment; mostly at the PhD level i.e enrolment for PhD is based on the availability of supervisor, that is to show you how important is supervisor to your success. Once a supervisor is allocated to you or you get one; you need to understand how to deal …READ MORE …

Why Are My Project Topics Rejected !: (10 Reasons)

Why are my project topics rejected! Why Supervisor May not Approve Your Project Topics! Either of the following may be the cause.. Check it out Maybe you are submitting old topics… try something new, fresh May be your topics are common… be creative Maybe Your topics are not researchable… try to reframe or seek expert May be you cannot defend your topics… try to know many things about your topics May be your topics are not clear… try to check your variables and reframe if needed May be your topics are too complex to complete within the stipulated time… try …READ MORE …

7 Things You Must Know about Your Chapter One !

Get familiar with 7 things your chapter one must contains before you start at all. CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION (should be upper case and in bold letters) 1.0 Background of the study (should be background of the study itself and not the study samples) 1.1 Statement of the problem (should be a clear description of the problem the study intends to solve) 1.2 Objectives of the study (objectives should be listed) 1.3 Research questions (questions should be listed) 1.4 Research hypotheses (for each hypothesis, both the null and alternate hypotheses should be stated; it is the null that should be tested). Candidates …READ MORE …

EXAMPLE OF TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR PROJECT

Below is the example of how table of content of a typical project should look like , though, it differs from school to school yet this is a framework for the beginners TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page                                                                                             Certification                                                                                          Dedication                                                                                            Acknowledgement                                                                    Table of Contents                                                                     Abstract                                                                                                                    CHAPTER ONE 1.0       Introduction 1.1       Background to the Study                                                          1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                            1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                 1.4       Research Questions                1.5       Scope of the Study                  1.6       Significance of the Study               1.7       Operational Definition of …READ MORE …

About Kwasu HND TOPUP and Degree Conversion

What is KWASU HND TopUp and Conversion Programme? The KWASU HND and Degree Conversion Programs addresses the dichotomy between B.Sc. and HND certificate holders. The major aim is to provide a level playing field, by way of Bachelor’s degree programme, to HND holders determined to beat discrimination in the world of work. This programme also provides a platform on which a university degree holder, hitherto dissatisfied with his/her class of degree, could “top up” and come out better. In the same vein, a holder of University degree who may wish to cross into other related discipline is afforded the opportunity …READ MORE …

Project Defense Tips for Students (in 2 minutes)

Carrying out a research, thesis or project has two main part, the first part is to write and the second part is to defend or present it before a constituted panel which could be from within the school or department (Internal Panel) and it could be external panel or both at different time.  It is not an over statement therefore, that defending a project is a nightmare exercise especially for the first timers (ND, HND, BSC, MSC even at PhD Level). Nevertheless, below are the summary and effective project/thesis defense tips that offered me an edge during my defense without …READ MORE …

Sources of Literature Review for Project

There are several sources of literature review but few sources will be explained here. Library: Library is a home of book both printed and non-printed copy. Just visit a credible literary such as one in your school (Academic Literary), National Library (Abuja) State Library, Private or special library depend on you are searching. Borrow: You can borrow books and other materials from friends, family even teachers if you consider that they have such materials. Internet: this is the most recent source of literature for project especially in Nigeria because the internet contains millions of academic database and other valuable sources …READ MORE …

Quantitative Research: Brief Overview

            Research is said to be quantitative when it objectives and intention is to collect numerical and statistical or numerical analyse data often collected from surveys, content analysis, poll etc Its main characteristics are: The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Data are in the form …READ MORE …

What is Research?

Research means different things to different people (students), while different names are given to explain it, it is called project, research or thesis among others. Research is a process of collecting, processing and analysing data collected about a phenomenon with the aim to know more about the issue, solve problem or explain the phenomenon. Let examine some scholarly definition of research to give it more depth and perspectives so that the concept of research could be effectively and carefully captured. “Scientific Research is systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypotheses about the presumed …READ MORE …

How to write Project Proposal

            Project proposal otherwise research or thesis proposal often come after a problem  or a topic has been approved for a student. It is the proposal that will persuade and convince the project supervisor whether the supervisee is capable enough to handle the research or not.  Therefore, a research proposal is an editable blueprint of how a research will be conceptualised and operationalised, i.e what is the problem to solve, why is it considered a problem and how to solve it.                A proposal is thus define as a persuasive document or outline on how a problem can be …READ MORE …

What is a Unit of Analysis in Research Writing?

 One of the first decisions in any social science research is the unit of analysis of a scientific study. The unit of analysis refers to the person, collective, or object that is the target of the investigation. Typical unit of analysis include individuals, groups, organizations, countries, technologies, objects, and such. For instance, if we are interested in studying people’s shopping behavior, their learning outcomes, or their attitudes to new technologies, then the unit of analysis is the individual. If we want to study characteristics of street gangs or teamwork in organizations, then the unit of analysis is the group. If …READ MORE …

How To Thinking Like a Researcher

Conducting good research requires first retraining your brain to think like a researcher. This requires visualizing the abstract from actual observations, mentally “connecting the dots” to identify hidden concepts and patterns, and synthesizing those patterns into generalizable laws and theories that apply to other contexts beyond the domain of the initial observations. Research involves constantly moving back and forth from an empirical plane where observations are conducted to a theoretical plane where these observations are abstracted into generalizable laws and theories. This is a skill that takes many years to develop, is not something that is taught in graduate or …READ MORE …

The Easiest ways to do your Project

How to Do a Project Choose a topic, or take a look at the one that you’ve been assigned, if you have been. Read any information.   For instance, if you are project is about Black Holes, Google it or stock up on books from your local library about them. Scribble down any essential facts in your notebook.   If you need to, print out any pictures. You will most likely need images of at least one thing that you are researching and a diagram. If you think you need more, try printing out a title, but do not print …READ MORE …

6 simple ways to do a research project

Steps by steps on how to do a research project Get or find the right supervisor You may be assigned to one at undergraduate level. Don’t be shy, ask! didn’t try to hide your feeling communicate with your supervisor asking questions because “No question is stupid,” Select the right topic Your topic will determine your project. It should be interesting Never rely on others to recommend for you a topic for research. Try to read and think a lot Keep your plan realistic Your topic could be the best in the field, but do you have enough resources to finish …READ MORE …

Examples of a typical chapter two of a research project

Example 1 CHAPTER TWO 2.0       Literature Review 2.1       Conceptual Review 2.2       Empirical Studies 2.3       Theoretical Framework References Example 2 CHAPTER TWO 2.0       Literature Review 2.1       Theoretical Framework 2.2       Conceptual Review 2.3       Empirical Studies References Example 3 CHAPTER TWO 2.0       Literature Review 2.1       Conceptual Review 2.2       Empirical Studies 2.3       Theoretical Framework 2.4       Summary of the chapter References NOTE:  Always use your school or supervisor project guide to tailor your project

What is chapter one of a project?

Typical examples of what chapter one of  a project entails EXAMPLE 1 Chapter One 1.0       Introduction 1.1       Background to the Study 1.2       Problem Statement 1.3       Objectives of the Study 1.4       Research Questions 1.5       Significance the Study 1.6       Scope of the Study 1.7       Limitations to the study 1.8       Operational Definition of Terms   EXAMPLE 2 This is another way to write the content of your chapter one CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1       Background to the Study 1.2       Problem Statement 1.3       Objectives of the Study 1.4       Research Questions 1.5       Significance the Study 1.6       Scope of the Study 1.7       …READ MORE …

5 Steps For Writing A Research Project

The Five Steps For Writing A Research Project by kenkenn When studying at tertiary level such as University, Polytechnic or College of Education you will likely be asked to prepare research papers/projects. A research project can be used for exploring and identifying scientific, technical and social science issues. If it’s your first time writing a research project, it may seem daunting. However, with good organization and clarity of focus, you can make the process easier on yourself. It won’t write itself, but you can plan and prepare well so that the writing falls into place. Below are The Five Steps …READ MORE …

Top 10 Bloggers in Nigeria

In today’s post , I will be sharing with you the list of top 10 most successful bloggers who are making their cool cash on a daily basis in Nigeria. These bloggers are ranked according to a post by ranksng.com. Linda Ikeji Linda Ikeji is the face of blogging in Nigeria. When an average Nigerian hears “blogger” Linda Ikeji comes to mind. The entertainment blogger has built a blog so big that it has become number one online source for corporate advertisers in Nigeria. Her Countless number of exclusive stories has made the former model the most authoritative blogger in …READ MORE …

What you need to know about project writing

What you need to know about project writing Meaning of research writing Why project writing? Project or conducting research otherwise called thesis, dissertation is one of the challenging period  for final year students in most tertiary institutions ranging from ND, NCE, HND, Degree, PGD, MA/MSC and even at PhD Level. Despite all the challenges; it is a must for students at all levels to complete his or her research project at a stipulated time usually within a year or two and failure to meet me up prevent students from graduating irrespective of the Grade in other subjects. Project writing is …READ MORE …

STEP BY STEP GUIDES TO EFFECTIVE PROJECT WRITING (PART 1)

STEP BY STEP GUIDES TO EFFECTIVE PROJECT WRITING (PART 1) For every student in their final year; either at the undergraduate or post graduate levels are expected to conduct research. Project writing begins with project ideation i.e idea on a project aspect you want to cover or area of your interest. For instance, as a mass communication, marketing, public relations, advertising, journalism students you need to take these steps.   STEP 1: BE CREATIVE Students need to be creative when it comes to research, from the time of selecting topics, to the time of conceptualizing the topic (problem), operationalising the …READ MORE …