extraction from CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1       Background to the study

One function of the mass media which is becoming increasingly important in the modern world is the economic functions of advertising. The mass media perform this function for the people by bringing together buyers and sellers through advertisements.

            Again, the world is fast becoming a common market place of ideas. Many multinational companies such as MTN have come to realize that people have the same basic needs and desires. Consequently, they have heeded to calls for global marketing and can promote their goods and services using advertisements.

            Also, the essence of being in business by any commercial organisation is to produce for sales and profits. For an organisation to continue to be in business such organisation must generate enough sales from its products or services to cover operating costs and post reasonable profits.

            For many organizations, sales estimate is the starting point in budgeting or profit planning. It is so because it must be determined, in most cases before production units could be arrived at.

            In an industrial and free competitive market economy, where the interplay of economic variables dictates the market, the problem of survival of business becomes a very nightmarish one for producers and manufacturers. The singular desire of manufacturers becomes how to create awareness and market for their goods. Advertising is then one strategy that fulfils the desire completely. The desire to be buoyant in business and to increase profit has given advertisement an irrevocable reputation.

            Advertising is not undertaken by management just for fun or to keep products or services. It is principally involved in persuasion or advocacy even apparently just giving us information, using media that are paid for it to get through to the mass audience with the identity of the advertisers being clear. Advertising has the mandate to sell the advertiser’s goods and help the consumers to shop wisely.

            Similarly, of all marketing weapons, advertising has leading impact on viewers mind, as its exposure is much more felt. (Katke, 2007). Marketing mix has four subsets i.e. product, price, place and promotion. Advertising is a component of promotional mix, which is used to create awareness about products and services for taking purchase decisions. Akinrosoye, (2004).

            Marketers use these types of tool for communication purpose. Advertisement evolves date back in the ancient times. Different societies used different types of symbols for the promotion of the products and services for attracting consumers.

No company can become a market leader unless they invest lots of their investment in promotional purposes (Hussainy et al., 2008). The major aim of advertising is to impact on buying behavior; however, this impact about brand is changed or strengthened frequently people’s memories. Memories about the brand consist of those associations that are related to brand name in consumer mind.

            The major objective of consumer behaviour analysis is to determine the factors that influence consumers’ behaviour in a particular circumstance.  Consumer behaviour analysis is helpful for advertiser to understand the behaviour of consumer in buying different situations.

            Advertising as a concept, can be defined as a form of communication through the media about product, services, ideas, personalities or organizations, paid for by an identified sponsor Alide in Okunna (2002: 99).

Bovee and Arens (1985) cited in Awofadeju (2013) gives a more widely accepted definition of advertising as the non-personal communication of information, usually paid for any usually persuasive in nature about products (goods and services) or ideas by an identified sponsor through various media. It is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise.

Its often a persuasive communication in that it tries to persuade the reader, the listener or the viewer to take to the sponsor’s own point of view and also to take some appropriate action. It is not personal or face to face communication rather it is directed to a group of people.

According to the understanding of advertising practitioners council of Nigeria (APCON) “advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor”.

Mobile Telephone Network ( MTN) South Africa was launched in 1994 and it’s the largest cellular network operators, operating in countries in Africa and the middle-east. As at the end of December 2006, MTN records more than 40million subscribers across its operations. Karel Punnor was the founding father of MTN South Africa. The early days in South Africa entails a great deal of handwork. The company was just focused on rolling out the networks ensuring there was enough capacity for the subscriber growth in their first year of business, voice mail and SMS were later added.

According to tele-geographics global communication database (2000), MTN was founded in Nigeria on November 8, 2000 as a private company. It secured license to operate digital on August 23, 2001. MTN emerged as the first to make a successful

call on its GSM network in the new dispensation. Thereafter, the country launched full commercial operations beginning in Lagos, Abuja, and Port-Harcourt. MTN advertising activities commenced before its operation. They virtually painted the streets of Lagos and Abuja Yellow its brand color of advertising, billboards and tee-shirts exhibited the advert. MTN Nigeria advertising programme captured the mood in August, 2001 with its first television advertising “Rising Sun”. The advert shows a nation waking up to a new day with the sun rising brightly into a beautiful sky. They indeed connected Nigerians to themselves in a new day. “Achieve what you want achieve” since the launched in August 2001, MTN has steadily deployed its services across Nigeria. And a growing number of high ways across Nigeria and the federal capital territory Abuja. Many of these villages and communities are being connected to the world of telecommunication for the first time ever.

The company also subsist on the core brand values of leadership, relationship integrity, innovation and “can do” it prides itself on its ability to make the impossible possible connecting people with friends, family and opportunities. The bond of friendship have got stronger. The ties of family have got closer, older friends have been nurtured. New relationships have been created, Nigerians are connected to new hopes; aspirations and better life opportunities are sourced all as a result of the power of communication.

However, since then, MTN has produced several advert campaigns through local, state, national and even cable television channels apart from the many showcase via radios, newspapers, magazines, internet platforms and even mobile applications and games.  


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