1.1 Background to the Study
Mass media have been a major agent of socialization and tools for social changes especially now that people depend on message from mass media.
The potential power of the mass media to help solve social problems. Television, radio and print advertising can entice people to buy a wide range of products and services, and television entertainment programs and movies exert enormous influence over our ideas, values and behavior.
Therefore, according to conventional wisdom, it should be possible to use mass communications to get people to act on behalf of their own health and well-being or to “do right” by important social causes. Based on this assumption, since World War II, federal, state and local governments, private foundations and other nongovernmental organizations have sponsored hundreds of public service campaigns to promote social rather than commercial “goods” (DeJong and Winsten, 1998).
It is not surprising, then, that prevention advocates would look to the mass media as an important aid in addressing the problem of high-risk drinking among college students.
Some advocates have pushed for reform or other restrictions on alcohol advertising (DeJong and Russell, 1995). Others have sought to influence entertainment producers to end the glorification of high-risk drinking on television and in the movies (Montgomery, 1989). More recently, prevention advocates have produced a small number of media
campaigns designed to change student knowledge, attitudes and behavior.
How can the power of the mass media be used effectively to reduce high-risk drinking among college students? To explore that question, this article begins by reviewing three types of mass media campaigns focused on student drinking: information, social norms marketing, and advocacy.
This is followed by a review of key lessons for campaign design derived from work in commercial marketing, advertising and public relations and from past public health campaigns. The article concludes by suggesting how future campaigns on student drinking might be constructed so that they work in sync with environmentally focused prevention efforts now being implemented on college campuses.
Most media campaigns focused on college student drinking have been campus based, using a mix of posters, flyers, electronic mail messages and college newspaper advertisements. More recently, a few regional, state and national media campaigns have begun to address this issue as well.
The following review describes three types of campaigns. First, information campaigns try to raise awareness of the problem, usually with the intent of motivating students to avoid high-risk alcohol use. Second, social norms marketing campaigns try to correct misperceptions of current drinking norms, based on the idea that if students no longer have an exaggerated view of how much alcohol their peers are consuming, fewer of them will be led to engage in high-risk drinking. Third, advocacy campaigns attempt to stimulate support for institutional, community or public policy change. Unfortunately, evaluation data for all three types of campaigns are still very limited.
Information campaigns “Party Smart” is a media awareness campaign launched by Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino as a response to the 1997 death of Scott Krueger, a freshman at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who died from alcohol poisoning after a fraternity hazing. Each of the advertisements for this poster and billboard campaign uses a photograph taken from the point of view of a drinker, with the rhetorical tagline, “Remind you of last night?” One shows the blurry image of a toilet, the apparent target of an intoxicated drinker who needs to vomit. Another shows the splayed feet of a drinker lying in bed, the room spinning rapidly around him. A third shows a covey of young women pointing and laughing at a drinker (presumably a male) who has passed out or fallen on the floor.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The continuous abuse of these drugs, has lead to a situation of drug addicted unloved developing a bondage to the drug. Drug therefore a state of period, or choice intoxication produced by repeated consummation of a drug (natural or synthetic) its characteristics are on over powering compulsives to continue in taking the drug, tend only to increase the dose, and the desire to obtain it by all means –situation that often leads to various crimes, including the distortions of national economies, monetary. Polices due to laundering of profits, narcotic, crimes (especially violence, cultism, assai sedation, and moral , decadence among our youth)The effects of drug abuse one detrimental not only to the individual but to the society as a whole ,yet this problem is on the increase tent news about drug abuse involving ones in higher institution of learning ,choose the serious threat to our national scanty ,can the electronic media as a vehicle for information dissemination be relied upon to perform its role in the society, to join hand in the battle against drug abuse?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
¨ To examine whether NTA and OSBC educate and enlighten the general public on drug abuse?
¨ To know if mass media awareness on drug abuse has reduced the unlawful use of drug in society?
¨ To know if there is any problem facing OSBC and NTA in creating awareness on drug abuse?
¨ To know if mass media contribute to drug abuse through advertisement and alcohol promo?
¨ To examine if OSBC and NTA present adequate information on effect of drug abuse to the people in society?
1.4 Research Questions
¨ Do NTA and OSBC educate and enlighten the general public on drug abuse?
¨ Has mass media awareness on drug abuse reduce the unlawful use of drug in society?
¨ Is there any problem facing OSBC and NTA in creating awareness on drug abuse?
¨ Do mass media promote drug abuse through advertisement and alcohol promo?
¨ Do OSBC and NTA educate and enlighten the general public on the bad effect of drug abuse?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The research will benefit different people, organization, and government and other agencies especially youth. This study has important contribution to make in the education of drug abuse among our youths in our national network stations. Drug abuse has a debilitation effect on the he health of the nation. irresponsible ,unemployable ,indeed, there is a danger of the waste of Nigeria next generation if the best of Nigeria youths will be consumed by an addiction that will leave trappable of productive employment or social reductions .the national security implication, hence the need for the media to intensity their role and fin hands with various organization like the national drug law enforcement glance (melba) and National Food and Drug Administration Committee (Nafdac) to combat this scrounge in all its ramification. Our higher national network activity should also be encouraged through their curriculum to expose the effects of the drug abuse. .
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study has been limited to NTA and OSBC in Osogbo due to time, geographical structure of Nigeria and other logistics since it is very difficult if not impossible to study all the media organizations in Nigeria. The research focuses on the role of mass media in creating awareness about drug abuse.
1.7 Limitation to the Study
Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constrains, this constrains pose a lot of limitations to this work.
¨ Duration for the research work is relatively short.
¨ Stress emanated from other academic activities is also another constrain.
¨ Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new.
¨ Financial constrain poses another challenges.
¨ Most information are gathered through newspapers and internet.
1.8 Definition of the Terms
Role: This is synonymous to the function or contribution of something or somebody.
Mass Media: These are means of communication to a larger audience. these are represented by radio, television, newspaper and magazine.
Creating Awareness: It means making it known to the public or popular
Drug: Drug is a substance which may have medicinal, intoxicating or enhancing performance or other effect in human body.
Drug Abuse: Is the use of drugs or substances in which the user consumes the substance in amount or with methods neither approved or nor supervise by medical professionals e. t. c
NTA: Nigerian Television Authority
OSBC: Osun State Broadcasting Corporation