IMPACT OF BROADCASTING MEDIA ON THE USAGE OF CONTRACEPTIVES BY RURAL WOMEN (A case study of Iree Community)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction

1.1.   Background to the Study

Of all the Millennium Development Goals, the least progress has been made on goal Number Five (MDG 5): Re­ducing maternal mortality by three-quar­ters by the year 2015. (UNICEF 2009).

Every day, about 1,500 women across the globe die because of com­plications during pregnancy or childbirth, and 98 percent of these deaths, half a million an­nually, occur in developing countries. Another 10 to 20 million women develop physical or mental disabilities every year as a result of complicated pregnancies and deliveries. (WHO Report: 2008).

Sub-Saharan Africa leads this death toll, accounting for 50 percent of all maternal deaths worldwide, and South Asia accounts for another 35 percent (UN Millennium Declaration).

In addition to the tragedy of these preventable deaths, high maternal mortality comes with a high cost to the rest of society. Costs are both direct, including the cost of health care (either to families or to the health system), and indi­rect, in the form of income and productivity lost for both the mother and the family (child health, growth, and education all suffer when mothers die) (Gill et al. 2007).

The recent progress report on the sub­ject, Countdown to 2015: Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival, de­fines as “high” any Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) of 300 or more maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Currently, 60 countries have MMR levels this high (UNICEF 2008).

However, it has become increasingly clear that the success of these interventions depends on the capacity of the health system and the role play by mass media in each country to deliver quality care as well as creating awareness and especially in girls’ education, family planning, good roads, and available transport for emergencies.

 Contraception and Pregnancy

Contraception (birth control) prevents pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, and implantation. There are different kinds of birth control that act at different points in the process.

Purpose

Every month a woman’s body begins the process that can potentially lead to pregnancy. An egg (ovum) matures, the mucus that is secreted by the cervix (a cylindrical-shaped organ at the lower end of the uterus) changes to be more inviting to sperm, and the lining of the uterus grows in preparation for receiving a fertilized egg.

Any woman who wants to prevent pregnancy must use a reliable form of birth control. Birth control (contraception) is designed to interfere with the normal process and prevent the pregnancy that could result.    There are different kinds of birth control that act at different points in the process, from ovulation through fertilization to implantation. Each method has its own side effects and risks. Some methods are more reliable than others.

Although there are many different types of birth control, they can be divided into a few group based on how they work. These groups include:

Hormonal methods: These use medications (hormones) to prevent ovulation. Hormonal methods include birth control pills ( oral contraceptives ), Depo Provera injections, and Norplant.

Barrier methods: These methods work by preventing the sperm from getting to and fertilizing the egg. Barrier methods include male condom and female condom, diaphragm, and cervical cap. The condom is the only form of birth control that also protects against sexually transmitted diseases , including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Spermicides: These medications kill sperm on contact. Most spermicides contain nonoxynyl-9. Spermicides come in many different forms such as jelly, foam, tablets, and even a transparent film. All are placed in the vagina. Spermicides work best when they are used at the same time as a barrier method.

Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These devices are inserted into the uterus, where they stay from one to ten years. An IUD prevents the fertilized egg from implanting in the lining of the uterus and may have other effects as well.

Tubal ligation: This medical procedure is a permanent form of contraception for women. Each fallopian tube is either tied or burned closed. The sperm cannot reach the egg, and the egg cannot travel to the uterus.

Vasectomy: This medical procedure is a the male form of sterilization and should be considered permanent. In vasectomy, the vas defrens, the tiny tubes that carry the sperm into the semen, are cut and tied off.

Unfortunately, there is no perfect form of birth control. Only abstinence (not having sexual intercourse) protects against unwanted pregnancy with 100 percent reliability. The failure rates, or the rates at which pregnancy occurs, for most forms of birth control are quite low. However, some forms of birth control are more difficult or inconvenient to use than others. In actual practice, the birth control methods that are more difficult or inconvenient have much higher failure rates, because they are not used faithfully.

(http://www.healthofchildren.com/C/Contraception.html#ixzz2bl1eOJMk)

 There are many different ways to use birth control. They can be divided into several groups:

By mouth (oral): Birth control pills must be taken by mouth every day.

Injected: Depo Provera is a hormonal medication that is given by injection every three months.

Implanted: Norplant is a long-acting hormonal form of birth control that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm.

Vaginal: Spermicides and barrier methods work in the vagina.

Intra-uterine: The IUD is inserted into the uterus.

Surgical: Tubal sterilization is a form of surgery. A doctor must perform the procedure in a hospital or surgical clinic. Many women need general anesthesia.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

High level of illiteracy, poverty, religion believe, superstitions and cultural background have been attributed to increase in the number of maternal mortality in the world especially in Sub-Sahara Africa. This background has made many of them remain ignorant of what maternal mortality is all about including family planning and various contraceptives.

However, the research seeks to examine the impact of broadcast media on the coverage of contraceptives by the rural women using women in Iree community as a case study.

 1.3    Objectives of the Study

  1. To examine whether broadcast media have been able to educate women in Iree community on the usefulness of contraceptives.
  2. To know if broadcast media enlightenment programmes have reduced unwanted pregnancy among women in Iree community.
  3. To highlight some of the challenges facing broadcast media in sensitizing women about contraceptives usage.
  4. To find out whether religion and cultural background of women in Iree community influence their usage of contraceptives.
  5. To know if educational background of women in Iree has impact on their acceptance and usage of contraceptives materials.
  6. To study the extent which broadcast media educate women on material health.
  7. To find out whether broadcast media campaigns on contraceptives usage reduce maternal mortality among women.

1.4    Research Questions

  1. To what extent has broadcast media been able to educate women in Iree community on the usefulness of contraceptives?
  2. Have broadcast media enlightenment programme reduce unwanted pregnancy among women in Iree community?
  3. Is there any challenge facing broadcast media in sensitizing women about contraceptives usage?
  4. To what extent does religion and culture influence women in Iree community to adopt contraceptives?
  5. To what extent does educational background of women in Iree have impact on their acceptance and usage of contraceptives materials?
  6. To what extent do broadcast media educate women on material health?

1.5    Significance of the Study

Media Practitioners: The study will assist the media practitioners to know its role in keeping women informed concerning maternal related issues.

Government and Health Agencies: Must partner with media in order to success in their various campaign activities to take their message to the target women.

Individual: Individual woman will benefit from this research as it will help them aware of some of the preventive measure they can take and the challenges in each of the method.  

Future Researchers: Researchers who will be writing on this aspect or related one will fine this word very interesting and serve as reference materials.

1.6    Scope of the Study

Although, the primary aim and objective of the project is to appraise the impact of broadcast media on the coverage of contraceptives by rural women. The topic itself has limited the scope of this study through the use of Iree community as a case study.

However, this can not be effectively talked without considering the demographic factor of the women in Iree community that will respond to the questionnaires.

Experience, education background, age, sex e. t. c must be considered before the distribution of research instruments.

 1.7    Definition of the Terms

Appraising: It means to estimate the value or quality of something or examine or study something.

Broadcast Media: These are means of getting information across to the people residing in a diverse location through the help of radio and television.

Contraceptives/Contraception: These are ways of preventing pregnancy by the use of contraceptives device or drug especially among women.

Rural Women: These are set of women living in a rural area or semi urban

Maternal Mortality/Death: Death of women during birth or pregnancy.

 1.8       Research Methodology

For the purpose of this research, survey methodology will be used. British Broadcasting Co-operation (BBC) English Dictionary defines “survey” as looking carefully, investigating, and examining something, people or events, toward finding facts, behavior or opinion of the whole of it. Oxford English Dictionary defines survey as an investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people, based on a series of questions.

According to Lawal (2006) survey method involves the analysis of data collection systematically from samples of the population through same objective random data gathering of information from the topic about the opinion attitude and behaviours on a particular issue of a natural phenomenon.

Theoretical Framework         

Below are some of the theories relevant to the study

The Uses and Gratifications Theory

The uses and gratifications theory, tells us that people seek out and use the media in different ways, there is no uniformity in the way individuals perceive the media, in how they use it, how long and for what reason they use the media.

Individuals Perception of the Media

The uses and gratifications theory, tells us that people seek out and use the media in different ways, there is no uniformity in the way individuals perceive the media, in how they use it, how long and for what reason they use the media.

Individual Differences Theory

This theory argues that, because people vary greatly in their psychological make up and because they have different perceptions of things, media influence differs from person to person.  More especially, “media messages contain particular stimuli attributes that have differential interaction with personality characteristics of members of the audience Defleur (1970:122).

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