PACKAGING AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR INCREASING SALES VOLUME IN A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC, APAPA, LAGOS)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The cardinal objective of any manufacturing company, is profit maximization which is often achieved through the sales of it products.
In this study, we shall examine how packaging could be used as an instrument through which the increase in sales volume in a manufacturing company is accomplished.
Packaging is therefore, used for the general operation for putting goods into containers for transportation, shipment in storage.
It may also means an act of placing a product on a special package or pack before selling to members or the general public.
These materials protect the real or product form, whether, climate and other destructive agents. Packaging in the real sense is the most important aspect especially in the in coming or the outgoing product of goods.
It serves some important purpose to the consumer of the product or consumers as well as the producer in increasing sales volume of the product in question such as protection, trade appeals, convenience, image co-ordination, sales promotion design, and co-ordination of the product and as product utility factor.
Packaging is now generally regarded as an essential component of our modern life style and the way business is organized.
Packaging enclosing of a physical object, typically a product that will be offered for sales. it is process of preparing items of equipment from transportation and storage and which embraces preservation, identification and packaging of products. Packaging recognized as an integral part of modern marketing operation, which embraces all phases of activities involved in the transfer of road from the manufacturing to the consumer. Packaging is an important part of the branding process at it plays a role in communicating the image and identify of a company.
Philip kotler defined packaging as all activities of designing and producing the container for a product. “Packaging can define as the wrapping material around a consumer item that has serves to contain, identify, describe, protect, display, promote and otherwise make the product marketable and keep it clean.
Packaging is the outer wrapping of a product to, make a product readily sellable as well as to protect it against damage and prevent it from deterioration while storing. Furthermore, packaging is often the most relevant element of a trade maker an conduces to advertising or communication

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This is generally group of activities in product that invest and improved the rate of sales demand in the economy for private consumption, investment and improved quality sales volume in a manufacturing company.
Product packaging is therefore a critical factor in economy development and in attaining the goals of the industry.
What gives births to this research work in the packaging of the products and how it increase sales volume in a manufacturing company.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research problem examines the various categories and methods of packaging that could be used in any manufacturing companies for boosting sales volume of their products.
Moreover, this work looks into the product because will act to production of the product because there is tendency for the customer in particular to understand how far the influence of packaging strategy is on the sales volume of Lever Brother Nigeria Plc.
The research will examine the problem associated with packaging and provide appropriate solution.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study is to find out how packaging is being used in production of goods in a manufacturing company.
Also, it will examine how packaging serves as an instrument of increasing the life – span or durability goods in the market.
It also aims at looking all the following:
a. To examine whether packaging has positive effects on sales.
b. To investigate how packaging contributes to the profitability rate of a business.
c. To examine whether packaging create repeat consumers choice.
d. To examine whether the packaging budgets is justified on the sales or not.
e. To known if it is worth while or not otherwise manufacturing companies to package their products.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
These are the research questions for the purpose of this study:
• Does your company have packaging policy?
• Does packaging serve as a tool for increasing sales volumes?
• What are the relationships between packaging and sales volume?
• Does packaging boost your morale and patronage of the company’s product?
• Does packaging create convenience in transporting and storing of the company’s product?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypotheses formulated for the purpose of this study are the following:
Hypothesis 1
Ho: There is no significant relationship between packaging and company’s sales volume.
Hi: There is significant relationship between packaging and the company’s sales volume.

Hypothesis II
Ho: There is no significant between packaging strategy and consumers patronage.
Hi: There is significant relationship between packaging strategy and consumer’s patronage.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work is intended to examine the vital role packaging plays in marketing goods or product of Manufacturing companies and its impact on the companies sales volume and image of the companies. Emphasis will also be placed on how packaging serves as a tool for increasing sales volume and increase the profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study examines the importance of packaging and how it can increase sales volume in a manufacturing company with particular reference to Unilever Nigeria Plc.

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The limitations of this research are:
1. Time Factors: There is no sufficient time to carryout this project work.
2. Inadequate Financial: This also constituted major constraint in the process of this write up because there was no enough fund to carryout the project due to the increase in the cost of vehicle and reading material.
3. Inadequate information: Lack of adequate information is one of the constraints which limited the scope of the project work.
4. Inaccessibility to vital documents: The top management echelon of the organization reduced to refuse some vital document pertaining to the packaging information which is intended to boost the success of the work.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
This explains the meaning of some major terms in this project work. Among these are:
Packaging: Can be useful aids in selling product, partly dues to how well they provide the previously mentioned benefits. Packaging as a set of activities in product planning that involves designing and producing the container or rapper for a product and lead to sales in another way.
Package: A set as an act of placing a product or goods in a special “House” container or material before selling to members of the general public. It is the material that protects the actual product from weather and other destructive agents. A package that is superior to others in protecting the product and facilitating its use is a definite selling tool.
Product: A product can be seen as anything that is offered for acquisition, use and disposal, and that statistics the needs of the target market. Product is the element of marketing mix that represents the basic offering being made to consumer. It is everything { both favorable and unfavorable} that one receives in an exchange, it is a complexity of tangible and intangible attributed, includeng functional, social and psychological utilities, or benefits. A product may be goods, services or an idea.
Consumer: This consists of the activities of industrial customers in acquiring goods and services for personal consumption to determine and using them to satisfy the requirements of the organization. Consumer goods can be further be classified into convenience goods shopping goods, specialty goods and unsought goods.

1.10 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Unilever Nigeria Plc, was incorporated as Lever Brothers (West Africa) Ltd on 11th April,1923 by Lord Leverhulme, but the company’s antecedences have to be traced back to his existing trading interests in Nigeria and west Africa generally, and to the fact that he had since the 19th century been greatly involved with the soap business in Britain.
Unilever Nigeria Plc, started as a soap manufacturing company and is today one of the oldest surviving manufacturing organization in Nigeria.
After series of mergers / acquisition the company diversified into manufacturing and marketing of foods, non-soapy detergents and personal care products. These mergers / acquisitions brought in Lipton Nigeria Limited in 1985, cheese brought ponds industries Ltd. in 1988. The company changed its name to Unilever Nigeria Plc in 2001.
Unilever Nigeria Plc is a public liability company quoted on the Nigeria stock exchange since 1977 with Nigeria currently having 490c off equity holding.

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