BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
All over the world people and companies utilize advertising to a good advantage. In the keen competition encounter in world regional and local markets, businessmen are aided by the sales producing force of advertising.
Not only that skillfully planned and directed advertising not only at home, but also abroad over come prejudice combat, foreign competition, establish new habit, build good will creates employment increase productivity multiply sales and thus, lay a solid foundation for sustained economic development of any country, one analysis contend that advertising is one of the most powerful socializing force in culture. Advertising sells more than product. It sets image value, goods and concepts of who we are and who we should be. It shapes our attitudes and our attitudes shape our behaviour. Ahunaya [2004:70].
Advertising power goes beyond the selling of goods; it promotes a consumer life – style, a global culture that centres on material things. A television commercial normally says “and now a few words from our sponsors”. Sponsors are companies or individuals that pay to have their product advertised, while the “few words our sponsor” have become a deluge sponsor still financially support the newspaper and radio. Encyclopedia (195).
According to the Encyclopedia, Americana . Advertising began around 3200 BC. When the Egyptian stenciled inscription the names of kings on the temple being built. Later they wrote run way – slave enouncement on papyrus – sign boards were placed outside doors in Greece and Egypt around 1500 B.C. Perhaps the most important event in history of advertising was the printing of the Gutenberg Bible about 1450 to 1455 – the first time that western man used the principle of moveable type. In about 1477 in London, the first printed advertisement in English announced a prayer book sale. The first newspaper advertisement appeared on the back paper of in London newspaper in 1625. The easily town crier was also a “medium of advertising.
Advertising has since than been seen to help in economic development in ways of creating Jobs, sponsoring sports, and the art helps to provide affordable media which encourages competition, improves product, keep price low and enable people to make informed buying choices ELUWAL [2005:44].
The impact of advertising does not stop at the economy but also has influenced the youth greatly by way of sensitization, social interaction, modification and other wise. Using ESUT students as an example, advertising makes students, too materialistic. Advert affects their value system because it suggests to them that the means to a happier life is the acquisition of more things. It encourages students to go for costly material like automobiles, clothes, electrical/electronic appliances and also expensive fashionable beauty materials, [Baran :390].
Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) is located at the heart of Enugu State capital.
Advertising has influence students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) by making them materialistic, it affects their value system, makes them think that life is just about acquisition of more things instead of spiritual or intellectual enlightenment. They go for costly things like automobiles, expensive wears, expensive cosmetics, electronic appliance etc advertising creates opportunity of striving to attend high materialistic status in student.
Advertising makes students change products not minding the effect of that products on them (cosmetic and drinks).
It shapes students tastes, habits and customers.
It suggests that consumer can enjoy more nourishous foods, more attractive clothes more confer table homes.
Advertising creates in students liking and preference for a product.
Advertising stimulates thought about a new product to its consumers.
Advertising makes sure that all information about product is communicated to it consumer (feature, location of sale).
Advertising with it’s persuasive nature, builds brand preference and loyalty in it consumers. Ozoh [1998:13]
Again students because of advertising are restless and dissatisfied with what they have nurturing and creating endless desired. A researcher, Alan in his write up says that “Advertisement like our age, are material, hedonistic image management, and fashion driven, they glorify the individual, idealize consumption as the route to personal fulfillment and affirm technological progress as the motive force of desting”. Eluwa [2005:44].
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Advertising, like other promotional techniques, informs, persuades and reminds. It can change consumer’s beliefs, attitudes, images, and behaviour. But for advertising to be effective on national level, enormous expenditures are required.
According to Nicholl, advertising surely makes all men brothers like Cain and Abel and the Cynic cannot help wondering who wants to keep up with the joneses when they are hoisted by their own petard to the highest tree in town. Here the reason for advertising basically is that advertising is an important instrument of communication as far as commerce is concerned. Once the advertiser has captured the attention of his audience, he holds their interest long enough to make them aware of the product being offered. Successful advertisements do not merely entertain, try to persuade the audience to buy, this is where the problem lies. People tend to have the nation that this persuasive quality of advertising has social effect on its audience, especially on students because they are still within the age of being influenced by the media. Hence the essence of this study. The problem therefore is what are these social effect on Nigeria students.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is not only toward identifying the social effect of advertising on Nigerian students, but also to find possible solution to which the bad effect could be controlled.
It also examines how advertising can be used to change negative behaviour in Nigerian student. For example, reducing materialism in students; intake of alcohol indecent dressing/behaviour, etc.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this work is that it will help researchers carry similar study. It will also add to the wealth of knowledge on the effect of advertising. This study will help to identify the social effect of advertising on Nigerian students. Finally it will provide the basis for state holders in planning advertising message.
In a bid to research into the social effect of advertising on Nigerian students, the following research question would be asked.
To what extent has advertising impact positively on Nigerian students?
Does advertising distort reality in Nigerian students?
To what extent does the exposure of advertising causes anti-social behaviour.
How has advertising by exposing Nigerian student to model product and services improved their life style?
To What extent can advertising influence on Nigerian student be controlled?
DEFINITION OF TERMS
SOCIAL EFFECT: According to Oxford Advanced learners dictionary, it is a compound word which means the way in which an event, action or person changes the quality of people’s lives.
ADVERTISING: Advertising is a non personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about product (good and services) or idea by identified sponsor through various media. Alide in Eluwa 2005.
NIGERIAN STUDENT: According to Oxford advanced learners Dictionary. It is a compound word which means a citizen of Nigeria who is studying in a university or tertiary institution.
SOCIAL EFFECT: Based on the study it means that researcher would look at how advertising influence the social behaviour of student.
ADVERTISING: The researcher’s interest there is on advertising message and influence it has on it audience especially students.
NIGERIAN STUDENT: This is the researcher’s area of focus in the study, specially Nigerian students referred to here are the student of Enugu University of Science and Technology (ESUT)
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
It is assumed that advertising plays a important role in human life as it is one of the most powerful socializing force seen as a means of communication to a large population. But advertising must not be exaggerated that people become suspicious or so that is disbelieved, this is because consumers do not suddenly change from being uninterested individual to convinced purchasers, it takes time and conviction.
It is assumed that advertising has a negative influence on Nigerian student because powerful image are placed in the sub – conscious level and at the appropriate time tends to guide behaviour. Advertising has to do with information, education, and persuasion by use of pictures, colours and actions etc. that move people into action. Again, it is a specialized form of communication because in order to satisfy the marketing function, it has to do more than inform, it has to persuade and also influence.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT). It is chosen as the area in carrying out the research in this project and all research done within the study are limited to (ESUT)
The population of the study is the entire student of (ESUT) and the sample will be mass communication and sociology students, due to the problem of time and money the research may also encounter certain other limitation such as the problem of having to manage class work with the research work as well as the problem of gathering enough material for the study. But in spite of this the researcher will make sure that all this problems are managed well in order to come up with a good result that can be a plus to this area of study.
Ahunaya, D. (2004). Advertising in Society Development. In ESUT Journal of Advertising Practice. Vol.1(3), 1-3
Benson, E. V. (Eds).(2005). Advertising Principles and Practice. Enugu: Virgin Creation.
Ozoh, H. (1998). Principles and Practice of Advertising. Lagos: APCOM.
Benson. E. V. (2009). Public Relations and Advertising Research. Enugu: Virgin Creation.
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English language. (5th ed.). (1978). Lagos: